To explain this for our audience we mean specifically the general custom or norm between human interaction. The default state of man is one of oppression and ignorance
Allah says in the Qur’an
إِنَّ الْإِنسَانَ لَفِي خُسْرٍ
إِلَّا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ وَتَوَاصَوْا بِالْحَقِّ وَتَوَاصَوْا بِالصَّبْرِ
1.(Allah) Swears by Asr (time)
2. Inna (inna is t’akeed which means ardent emphasis and is translated as “indeed”)
Indeed mankind is in a state of total and utter loss
3. EXCEPT those who believe AND who make their deeds righteous AND who advise one another on truth AND advise one another on patience
In this surah which is Suratul-Asr, Allah has rendered every man, women, and child as a bunch of loosers. The ayaah is Mutlaqan meaning is sets the stage. The general principle here is that Allah rendered mankind in toto as loosers or in a state of loss. The ONLY exception to this general rule is what. The exception is laid in the third ayaah which states that
“except those who believe”
Is it enough to believe? NO. The word “wa” in arabic is a shariah connotation that that which comes after is of a different nature than what comes before, and in this surah specifically, the thing that comes after belief is NECESSITATED. So Allah continues by saying
“AND those who when they perform actions, they make sure that they are righteous”
“AND who advise one another on truth” and this is the concept in Islam as Enjoining the Good and Forbidding the Evil and it was one of the pitfalls of the Jews for not performing it as Allah mentions elsewhere in the Qur’an
“And who advise one another to patience”
each single phrase in this last ayaah, in order to get the full bounties and scope of each phrase can be commented in an entire book because each phrase has shuroot (conditions) and necessitated aspects (daroora) that have to be fulfilled, but that is an entirely different subject altogether.
Allah further states in the Qur’an the following
Truly, We did offer Al-Amanah (the trust or moral responsibility or honesty and all the duties which Allah has ordained) to the heavens and the earth, and the mountains, but they declined to bear it and were afraid of it (i.e. afraid of Allah’s Torment). But man bore it. Verily, he was unjust (to himself) and ignorant (of its results).[33:72]
I will elucidate some of the understanding of the companions and the insightful scholars of Islam on this ayaah
pay close attention to what I will present and reflect deeply on them
Ibn Katheer records the following in his tafseer about this verse by which he is reporting the views of those who understood the the Qur’an not only the best, but those who understood it accurately.
Al-`Awfi reported that Ibn `Abbas said, “Al-Amanah means obedience. This was offered to them before it was offered to Adam, and they could not bear it. Then Allah said to Adam: `I have offered the Amanah to the heavens and the earth and the mountains, and they could not bear it. Will you take it on’ He said, `O Lord, what does it involve’ He said, `If you do good, you will be rewarded, and if you do evil, you will be punished.’ So Adam took the Amanah and bore it, and this is what is referred to in the Ayah:
﴿وَحَمَلَهَا الإِنْسَـنُ إِنَّهُ كَانَ ظَلُوماً جَهُولاً﴾
(But man bore it. Verily, he was unjust and ignorant.)” `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas said, “Al-Amanah means Al-Fara’id (the obligatory duties). Allah offered them to the heavens and the earth and the mountains, (on the grounds that) if they fulfilled them, He would reward them; and if they failed, He would punish them. But they did not want to do that, and they were afraid of it, not because their intention was sinful, but because of their respect for the religion of Allah, in case they could not fulfill the obligations involved. Then Allah offered it to Adam, and he accepted it with all that it entailed. This is what is referred to in the Ayah:
﴿وَحَمَلَهَا الإِنْسَـنُ إِنَّهُ كَانَ ظَلُوماً جَهُولاً﴾
(But man bore it. Verily, he was unjust and ignorant. ) meaning, he underestimated the command of Allah.” This was also the view of Mujahid, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Ad-Dahhak, Al-Hasan Al-Basri and others that Al-Amanah means Al-Fara’id. Others said that it meant obedience. Al-A`mash narrated from Abu Ad-Duha from Masruq that Ubayy bin Ka`b said: “Part of Al-Amanah means that woman was entrusted with her own chastity.” Qatadah said: “Al-Amanah means religion, obligatory duties and prescribed punishments.” Malik narrated that Zayd bin Aslam said: “Al-Amanah means three things: prayer, fasting and performing Ghusl to cleanse oneself from sexual impurity.” There is no contradiction between all of these views; they are all in agreement and all refer to responsibility and the acceptance of commands and prohibitions with their attendant conditions, which is that the one who fulfills this responsibility, will be rewarded; while the one who neglects it, will be punished. Man accepted this despite the fact that he is weak, ignorant and unjust — except for those whom Allah helps, and Allah is the One Whose help we seek.
One of the reports which deal with Al-Amanah is the Hadith recorded by Imam Ahmad from Hudhayfah, may Allah be pleased with him, who said: “The Messenger of Allah told us two Hadiths, one of which I have seen and the other I am still waiting to see. He told us that Al-Amanah is deeply rooted in the heart of man, then the Qur’an was revealed and they know it from the Qur’an and from the Sunnah. Then he told us that Al-Amanah will be taken away. He said,
«يَنَامُ الرَّجُلُ النَّوْمَةَ فَتُقْبَضُ الْأَمَانَةُ مِنْ قَلْبِهِ، فَيَظَلُّ أَثَرُهَا مِثْلَ أَثَرِ الْمَجْلِ كَجَمْرٍ دَحْرَجْتَهُ عَلَى رِجْلِكِ، تَرَاهُ مُنْتَبِرًا وَلَيْسَ فِيهِ شَيْء»
(A man may sleep and Al-Amanah will be taken from his heart, leaving nothing but a trace like a blister left by a coal if you were to roll it over your leg — you will see it protruding but there is nothing inside.) Then he took a pebble and rolled it over his leg, then he said:
«فَيُصْبِحُ النَّاسُ يَتَبَايَعُونَ لَا يَكَادُ أَحَدٌ يُؤَدِّي الْأَمَانَةَ حَتَّى يُقَالَ: إِنَّ فِي بَنِي فُلَانٍ رَجُلًا أَمِينًا، حَتَّى يُقَالَ لِلرَّجُلِ مَا أَجْلَدَهُ وَأَظْرَفَهُ وَأَعْقَلَهُ وَمَا فِي قَلْبِهِ حَبَّةُ خَرْدَلٍ مِنْ إِيمَان»
Then the people will start buying and selling, and hardly anyone will be paying attention to Al-Amanah, until it will be said that among the tribe of so-and-so there is a trustworthy man, and it will said of a man, `how strong he is, how nice and how wise,’ and there is not even a mustard seed of faith in his heart.) No doubt, there came upon me a time when I did not mind dealing (bargaining) with anyone of you, for if he was a Muslim, his Islam would compel him to pay me what is due to me, and if he was a Christian, or Jew, the Muslim official would compel him to pay me what is due to me, but today, I do not deal except with such and such person among you.’‘
It was also recorded in the Two Sahihs from the Hadith of Al-A`mash. Imam Ahmad recorded that `Abdullah bin `Amr, may Allah be pleased with him, said that the Messenger of Allah said:
«أَرْبَعٌ إِذَا كُنَّ فِيكَ فَلَا عَلَيْكَ مَا فَاتَكَ مِنَ الدُّنْيَا: حِفْظُ أَمَانَةٍ، وَصِدْقُ حَدِيثٍ، وَحُسْنُ خَلِيقَةٍ، وَعِفَّةُ طُعْمَة»
(There are four things, if you attain them, then whatever you miss in this world will not matter: preserving trust, speaking the truth, being of good character and moderation in eating.)
Shaykhul-Islam Ibnu-Taymiyyah says about this verse the following
“As for the saying of the one who says, ‘The base rule (asl) of Muslims is al-Adaala (uprightness, trustworthiness, integrity, honesty), then this is baatil (false). RATHER, the base rule concerning the son of Adam is dhulm (oppression) and jahl (ignorance) just as the most High has said”
and he quotes the ayaah above that ALlah said “But man bore it, and he was unjust (to himself) and ignorant (of its consequences)
and then he says after the ayaah
“And the mere utterance of the testimony of faith (shahada) does not necessitate that a person has moved from oppression and ignorance into al-Adl (integrity, justice, honesty, uprightness)” Majmu’a al-Fatwa (15/357)
A Perfect Example Between the Muslim and the Revisionist With regard to The Heedlessness of Those Who Compromise the religion for Western Sentiments and Viewpoints.
There is a Hadith reported in Bukhari, in the chapter of partnership narrated by Nu’man bin Basheer (ra) that the prophet (saw) said,
This Hadith has also been reported in another narration that the prophet (saw) said,
It is Saheeh and has many narrations. The prophet (saw) has given us this parable explaining the reality of people in the society that they are living in and their role in it.
The Hadith mentions the fact that people in any society must live together and put up with each other, that each people have needs that need to be fulfilled such as the need of the people of the lower deck to take water. The example of the ship is like people in a society where some people wish to engage in bad deeds by making a hole in the bottom of the ship and this Hadith explained that the people of the upper deck MUST either do their duty and stop them or if they ignore them and the crisis, then destruction will face everybody.
So the Hadith teaches us that there is no society free from Munkar and corruption and each corrupted person justifies their corruption by any argument, whether by claiming it is relieving others of hardship or that it is ‘freedom’ or ‘modernity’. Therefore the people in that society must prevent them from their corruption and save everybody from the anger of Allah and if they fail to do so the anger of Allah and punishment will reach everyone. Allah (swt) says
“And fear an affliction which may not smite only those of you in particular who are unjust; and know that Allah is severe in requiting (evil).” [EMQ Anfaal: 25]
The Hadith says that there are people who want to stand to the Hudud (rights) of Allah and some people who want to compromise it. The prophet (saw) said,
“If the people see an oppressor and do not stop him, the punishment will reach all of them”
So changing the Munkar must have very strong words, it requires “rejecting and exposing from all directions and changing with the hand”
1) Linguistically, “Al Qa’im hududillah” is among the most beautiful terms. It refers to those who forbid the evil and are the safeguard of the earth,
2) Then the Hadith says “the example of people who commit evil” referring to those who disobey Allah and cause Fitnah for others,
3) And he (saw) mentions “akhez bil yadd” that they must stop them by their hands. That is metaphoric, stressing that the action must be stopped and refuted from every angle with no room left to justify it.
Such are the people of Islam and the Sunnah who preserve the rights of Allah and the revisionist who are bent on the destruction of the rights of Allah