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Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali’s Explanation of Seven Important Ahadeeth

Ibn Rajab’s Explanation To The Last Seven Ahaadeeth of Jaami’ Uloom Wal-Hikam

Hadith No. 43

On the authority of Ibn Abbas (peace be on both of them) who said: The Prophet (sas) said: “Get the fixed amounts (of inheritance) to their people and whatever is left is for the closest male relative.

Muslim & Bukhari

Introduction to Fara’idh (Inheritance)

1. Fara’idh is the plural of fareedha which means a set amount or proportion. The science of inheritance in Shari’a is called Meeraath or Fara’idh.

2. Three verses in the Qur’an (An-Nisaa: 11, 12 and 176) give the basic rulings on inheritance which are further understood from the Sunnah and verdicts of the Companions.

3. Before Islam, the system of inheritance excluded women and children entirely with all property going to the closest and strongest male relative. When Sa’ad ibn Rabee died, he left a wife and two daughters. She went to the Prophet (sas) and said:

“O Allah’s Messenger, these are the two daughters of Sa’ad ibn Rabee who was killed a martyr with you at Uhud. Their uncle has taken all of their property and left nothing for them and they will not get married with no property.” The Prophet (sas) said: “Allah will decide your case.” Whereupon Allah revealed the above-mentioned verses (An-Nisaa 11-12). The Prophet (sas) sent word to the uncle saying: “Give the two daughters of Sa’ad two thirds and their mother one eighth and what is left is yours.”

4. The science of inheritance is one of the most important forms of knowledge in Islam per several hadith of the Prophet (sas) and one of the first forms of knowledge which will be neglected and lost.

5. What is inherited? Property (money and other access) by unanimous agreement. Differences of opinion about non-monetary rights, are they inherited or not?

6. Rights over the property of the deceased (in order):

a) Preparation and burial of the body.

b) Payment of any debts left by the deceased. The scholars differed about debts to Allah (e.g., zakat). Ash-Shafi’I and others gave it precedence over debts to people. Abu Hanifa and others said that this is over with the death of the deceased and need not be paid unless the heirs voluntarily do it.

c) Implementation of any will (wasiya) left by the deceased in as much as one-third of the remaining property.

d) Distribution of what is left among the heirs.

7. Pillars of inheritance:

a) One or more heirs – someone among those who inherit from the deceased according to Shari’a.

b) Deceased – one who has passed away actually or a missing person who has been adjudicated as being legally deceased.

c) Property – something which can be inherited by the heirs.

d) Relationship of blood or marriage.

8. Issues which prevent inheritance:

a) Murder (and in some cases manslaughter) – of the deceased by one of the heirs directly or indirectly.

a) Difference in religion – Muslim and non-Muslim do not inherit from each other based on sahih hadith of the Prophet (sas). Do not confuse this with wasiya (will) which is lawful in these cases.

Hadith No. 45

On the authority of Jabir (ra) that he heard the Prophet (sas) in Mecca the year of the liberating of Mecca saying:

“Allah and His Messenger forbid the selling of alcoholic drinks dead animals (without being killed Islamically), pigs and idols.”

It was said to him (sas): “O Allah’s Messenger, what about the fat of the dead animals -–it is used for coating boats, oiling leather and the people burn it in their lamps?

He (sas) said: “No, it is haram.” Then, the Prophet (sas) said: “May Allah fight the Jews: Allah forbid them the fat, so they liquefied it, sold it and ate (consumed) its value.”

Muslim and Bukhari

1. This prohibition was announced right after the prohibition of riba (interest) by Allah in the Qur’an. From Muslim: When the verse at the end of Al-Baqarah regarding interest was revealed, the Prophet (sas) went out to the mosque and forbid doing business in alcoholic drinks.

2. Wine was spilled in the streets of Madinah. Also from Muslim (from Abi Said): The Prophet (sas) said: “Allah has forbidden alcoholic drinks. Whoever this verse reaches while they still possess any of it, they are not to drink nor to sell.”

3. Also from Muslim: Once a man gave the Prophet (sas) a gift of wine. He (sas) said to him: “Did you know that Allah has forbidden it?” The man said: “No.” Then, he asked another man to sell it for him. The Prophet (sas) said to him: “That which has been forbidden to drink is forbidden to sell.” And so the man opened the container and spilled it out.

4. In another hadith: “Whenever Allah forbids something, He forbids its value (i.e., money obtained by selling it).

5. Items the use (or the normal intention of whose use) is haram are of two types:

a) Those which are used but not destroyed by their use. Examples include the idols mentioned in the hadith – there is not bigger haram than taking intermediaries and intercessors with Allah. Along with this is anything whose use is something haram such as books of witchcraft, fortunetelling, innovation, etc. Also musical instruments and anything whose only or whose major use is in something forbidden.

b) That which is destroyed by a single use such as pigs, alcoholic drinks, dead animals, etc. Again, if the intended use of these items is haram, selling them is also haram.

6. About the Prophet’s (sas) statement in the hadith: “No, it is haram.”, the scholars differed about this as follows:

a) The meaning is that the uses described by the questioner are themselves haram. In this case, their sale is obviously haram since there is no single legitimate use of these items.

b) Other said that the meaning here is that the SALE of these items is forbidden, even though the uses described by the questioner are legitimate.

7. Is it allowed to make use of the fat of dead animals? Three of the four imams said no, it is haram.

8. What about the other parts of the dead animal? Whatever has been found to be clean (not najis), is lawful to be used and sold. This includes the horns, hair and skin (some scholars require that it be tanned first). One evidence for this is the hadith in Bukhari: “The only thing forbidden from the dead animal is eating it.” Also, the Prophet (sas) informed us that tanning is a purification of such skin (not including pigs).

9. Selling dogs is forbidden, even though it lawful to benefit from them only for hunting or guarding property. From Muslim: “The most evil earnings are the fees of a prostitute, the selling price of a dog and the fees of the bloodletter.”

10. Most scholars forbid the selling of dogs absolutely and that is the apparent meaning of the above hadith. Some allowed the sale of dogs whose use is lawful such as hunting dogs and guard dogs (and seeing eye dogs by analogy). There is no authentic evidence from the sunnah to support this.

11. What is the cause of this prohibition?

a) Because it is unclean (najis)

b) Because most of its uses are forbidden and it has only been allowed in cases of necessity of need. (Even pig can be eaten by one who will starve otherwise, but this did not cause its sale to be allowed.

c) Because it is a lowly thing and easily obtained so its sale was prohibited so that those who have simply help out those who need it for a lawful purpose.

12. Other animals. The scholars have put forth many opinions about the lawfulness or lack thereof of selling other animals such as bears, elephants, cats, etc. The bottom line here is that in the absence of any evidence about these things, they remain lawful to own and sell based on the principle of the innate lawfulness of all that Allah created for us in this earth except where the Shari’a has stated otherwise.

Hadith No. 47

On the authority of Al-Miqdaam ibn Maadiy-Karib who said: I heard the Messenger of Allah saying: “No human ever filled a vessel worse than the stomach. Sufficient for any son of Adam are some morsels to keep his back straight. But if it must be, then one third for his food, one third for his drink and one third for his breath.”

Ahmad, At-Tirmidhi, An-Nasaa’I, Ibn Majah – Hadith sahih.

1. Ibn Masaweh, a Muslim doctor, said after reading this hadith: “If the people only used these words, they would avoid all diseases and maladies and the clinics and pharmacies would be idle.”

2. Another doctor, Al-Harith ibn Kalada said: That which has killed mankind is the introduction of food on top of food before it has been digested.

3. As for spiritual benefits: humbleness of heart, strength of understanding, lessening of lower desires, lessening of personal opinions and anger, while overeating induces the opposites of all of those. Al-Hassan Al-Basri said: “O, son of Adam, eat with one third of your stomach and drink with one third and leave one third of your stomach to breathe so that you may think.”

4. Ibn Umar: A man said to Ibn Umar: Shouldn’t I bring you some jawarish? Ibn Umar said: What is that? He said: Something which aids in digesting your food after you eat. Ibn Umar said: I have not eaten to being full for four months. That is not because I am not able to do so, but I was with a group of people who were hungry more than they were full.

5. Not reaching your goals: Muhammad ibn Wasi said: Whoever eats little will understand and make others understand and will be clear and humble. Overeating weighs a person down and keeps him from much of what he wants [to accomplish].”

6. Al-Hassan Al-Basri: The test of Adam, peace be upon him, was food and it is your test until Qiyama. And, it used to be said: Whoever takes control of his stomach gets control of all good deeds. And: Wisdom does not reside in a full stomach. One day, Al-Hassan offered some food to his companion who said: I have eaten until I am no longer able to eat. To which Al-Hassan said: Subhaana Allah! Does a Muslim eat until he is no longer able to eat?

7. Allah grants this world to those whom He loves and those He does not love but only grants hunger to those whom he loves.

8. Ash-Shafi’I said: I have not filled myself in sixteen years because filling oneself makes the body heavy, removes clear understanding, induces sleep and makes one weak for worship.

9. In Muslim and Bukhari: “The believer eats with one stomach while the kafir eats with seven stomachs.” Meaning: The believer eats with the manners of Islam and in moderation, while the karif eats based on desires and gluttony and so he eats with seven stomachs.

10. Also: “Food for one is enough for two and food for two is enough for three and food for three is enough for four.”

11. Also: From Aisha: The family of Muhammad (sas) never filled themselves with wheat bread three days in a row from the time he came to Madinah until he passed away.”

12. A Muslim should not merely follow his appetites. Allah said: {Then, they were followed by generations who neglected the prayer and followed their appetites. They will encounter a pit of fire except for those who repent…} Maryam 59-60.

13. The best generations didn’t. “The best generation is my generation, followed by the one after them then the one after them. Then will come a people who bear witness but are not asked to bear witness, who swear oaths but do not fulfill them and fatness will appear among them.” (Muslim &Bukhari).

14. From Abi Barza that the Prophet (sas) said: “My greatest fear for you is the appetites of transgression with regard to your stomachs and your privates and the inclinations which lead astray”. (Ahmad and others and its narrators are people of sahih)

Hadith No. 48

On the authority of Abdullah ibn ‘Amr (may Allah be pleased with them both) that the Prophet (sas) said:

“Four traits whoever possesses them is a hypocrite and whoever possesses some of them has an element of hypocrisy until he leaves it: the one who when he speaks he lies, when he promises he breaks his promise, when he disputes he transgresses and when he makes an agreement he violates it.

Muslim and Bukhari

1. Other wordings of this same hadith:
“The signs of the hypocrite are three: when he speaks he lies, when he promises he breaks his promise and when he is entrusted he betrays the trust.” (Bukhari and Muslim)

“…even if he prays and fasts and imagines that he is a Muslim” (Muslim)

“Among the signs of the hypocrite are three…” (Muslim)

2. Nifaaq (hypocrisy) in the Arabic language means the general category of deception, scheming and presenting an outward appearance of good while concealing its opposite.

3. In the Shari’a, nifaaq is of two types:

a) Greater (An-Nifaaq Al-Akbar): To present an outward appearance of belief in Allah, his Angels, his books, his messengers, the last day, etc. while concealing withing that which negates all or some of that. This is the hypocrisy which the Prophet (sas) confronted during his life and the ones who Allah said in the Qur’an that they are in “the lowest depth of hell-fire”.

b) Lesser (An-Nifaaq Al-Asghar) or hypocrisy of action: To present an outward appearance of good and good deeds while concealing within that which negates that. This form of hypocrisy is built on the 5 things mentioned in the hadith at hand.

4. The actions in this hadith are all part of lesser hypocrisy. One who has these character traits in interaction with other people is most likely to have them with regard to Allah and his Prophet (sas). That is why the existence of them is a ‘sign’ of the existence of greater nifaaq.

5. Lying. Al-Hassan Al-Basri said: “Nifaaq is the difference between the inner and the appearance, between statement and action and between entering and leaving and it used to be said that the foundation of nifaaq upon which it is built is lying.”

6. Breaking Promises. This falls into two categories:

a) Making a promise with no intention of keeping it. Al-Awzaa’iy said that one who says “I will do such-and-such isha Allah” without intending to do it has committed both lying and breaking a promise.

b) Making a promise intending to keep it and then later deciding to break it.

7. Transgression in Dispute. The main meaning of ‘transgression’ here is to intentionally speak other than truth making truth falsehood and vice versa. Lying ‘calls to’ this as in the hadith: “Beware of lying for lying guides to transgression and transgression leads to the fire.” (Bukhari and Muslim). Also, the Prophet (sas) said: “The most hated of men to Allah is the one given to fierce and violent disputation.” (Bukhari and Muslim) Also, the Prophet (sas) said about the one who takes what is not his through clever speech has only been given a piece of the fire.

8. Breaking Agreements. Allah said: {And fulfill your agreements for verily agreements will be asked about} Al-Israa’: 34. And: {And fulfill Allah’s agreement when you have made an agreement and don’t violate your oaths after they have been established and you have made Allah your guardian (therein)} An-Nahl: 91. Also: Aal-Imraan: 77. This applies to Muslim and non-Muslim alike. The Prophet (sas) said: “Whoever kills an individual protected by treaty without right will not even smell the scent of paradise and its scent can be found at a distance of forty years march.” The most serious oath to dishonor is the oath of allegiance to the khalifa of the Muslims.

9. Betraying of Trusts. When a Muslim is entrusted with something, he must do his best to protect it and to render it back to its owner when the time comes. Allah said: {Verily, Allah orders you to render trusts to their rightful owners…} An-Nisaa: 58 Also: Al-Anfaal: 27.

10. These issues have all been connected to hypocrisy in the Qur’an:

a) Al-Munaafiqoon: 1-2 (Lying, breaking oaths)

b) At-Tauba: 73-77 (False oaths, breaking promises (to Allah), lying)

c) Al-Ahzaab: 72-73 (Betraying trusts)

11. Umar mentioned the hadith of the Prophet (sas): “The thing from which I fear for you the most is the knowledgeable hypocrite.” Umar was then asked: “How can a hypocrite be knowledgeable?” To which Umar answered: “He speaks with wisdom but acts with injustice.”

12. Ibn Umar was told: “We enter the presence of the ruler we speak to him other than what we say after we leave.” Ibn Umar said: “We used to consider that hypocrisy.” (Bukhari)

13. Ibn Abi Mulaika said: “I encountered thirty Companions of the Prophet (sas) every one of them fears hypocrisy for himself and Al-Hassan Al-Basri used to say about it: No one fears it but a believer and no one feels safe from it but a hypocrite.” (Bukhari)

14. Another aspect of hypocrisy is to do apparently good deeds with wicked intentions. Allah said: {They set up a masjid for the purpose of harm, kufr, creating division among the Muslims and as an outpost for those making war against Allah and His Prophet before this and they will swear “We only intended good.” And Allah bears witness that they are liars.} At-Tauba: 107

15. Also: {Do not imagine that those who are joyful with what they have done and love to be praised for that which they did not do – do not imagine them to be safe from punishment – and theirs is a painful punishment.} Aal-Imraan: 188

16. Consciousness will vary and this is not hypcrisy. The Prophet (sas) said to Handhala: “If you were to continue in the state which you achieved in my presence, the angels would greet you in your sittings and in the streets however, O Handhala, there are times and there are times.”

Hadith No. 49

From Umar ibn Al-Khattab from the Prophet (sas) who said:

“If only you relied on Allah a true reliance, He would provide sustenance for you just as He does the birds: They fly out in the morning empty and return in the afternoon with full stomachs.”

Ahmad, An-Nasaa’I, Ibn Majah, Al-Hakim and At-Tirmidhi who said: “Hassan sahih”

1. Reliance on Allah is one of the most important causes of getting sustenance in this life. Allah said: {And whoever fears Allah, He will provide him a way out and will provide for him from an unforeseen direction. And whoever relies on Allah, He is sufficient for him.}

2. Reliance on Allah does NOT mean not working and striving for sustenance in this life. Al-Bahaiqiy (one of the major collectors of hadith) said:

“There is no support in this hadith for resigning from working to earn. On the contrary, it in fact supports working and seeking earnings. This is because the bird when it flies out in the morning does so in pursuit of its sustenance. And so the meaning – and Allah knows best – is: if they were to rely on Allah while setting out and while returning and when acting/interacting and believed during all of that that all good id in the hands of Allah and comes only from Him, they would never set out except in a state of health and success like the birds who set out hungry and return full. If, however, they rely on their own strengths and abilities and then engage in deception, lying and insincerity, this is opposite to reliance on Allah.”

3. Tawakkul (reliance) on Allah is: The true reliance of the heart on Allah in the pursuit of acquiring that which benefits and avoiding that which harms in this life and the hereafter and the leaving these issues up to Allah along with the true belief that no one gives, witholds, harms or benefits except Allah Most High.

4. Allah orders us to rely on Him AND to strive for our objectives. {And prepare against them all that you are capable of in forms of strength and ranks of horses…} and {…and, when the [Friday] prayer is finished, go forth in the land and seek from the bounties of Allah and mention/remember Allah much that perhaps you may be successful.}

5. One of the salaf said: “Whoever criticizes action and work for the sake of earning has criticized the sunnah and whoever criticizes reliance on Allah has criticized belief. Reliance on Allah was the STATE of the Prophet (sas) while working and earning was his sunnah. So whoever aspires to his state, let him not neglect his sunnah (sas).”

6. In this area, there are three kinds of actions.

a) The acts of obedience which Allah has commanded us. We must rely on Allah in the performance of these actions. That is why when the Mu’adhin mentions the commands to come to prayer, we respond with “Laa hawla wa laa quwwata illa billahi” – there is not motion nor any power except with Allah. Whatever Allah wills is and whatever He does not will is not. Whoever is negligent in these actions is deserving of punishment in this life and/or the hereafter. One of the salaf said: “Strive as the striving of one who can only save himself by his efforts and rely on Allah as one who will never find anything but that which was written for him.”

b) The basic needs which Allah has tied to our survival and well-being. These include eating when we are hungry and needs for clothing to protect us from the elements and shelter, etc. These are also obligatory on the Muslim to pursue the means to them. Whoever neglects them to the point of causing harm to himself or to those who depend on him though he was able to do otherwise is sinful in this negligence and deserving of punishment. The Prophet (sas) used to connect his fasting from one day to the next, but forbid the companions from doing that saying: “I am not in the same position as one of you, I am provided food and drink.” This means – and Allah knows best – that what Allah sent to Muhammad (sas) freed him from much of his needs for basic human necessities.

c) That which Allah has connected to our benefit in many cases, but no always.

i) That which Allah frequently frees some of his servants from the need for it such as medicines. The scholars differed about one who becomes sick: Is it better to take medicine or leave it and rely on Allah? Some took the opinion that reliance on Allah was better and used the hadith: “Seventy thousand from my nation will enter paradise without any account-taking… those who do not believe in omens, do not seek incantations for cure or use cauterization and who rely on their Lord.” Other countered by the fact that the Prophet (sas) used cures and his state is best. The hadith, then is referring to incantations which are makrooh (disliked) because of the fear of falling into shirk since it was mentioned along with cauterization which is makrooh.

ii) That in which the pattern is rarely broken such as sustenance being provided to those who do not strive to seek it. This is not allowed except to those who have knowledge of such provision such as Maryam in the hose if Zakariya.

7. Ibn Abbas said: Some people from Yemen used to come to Hajj without bringing provisions and said: We are the reliers (on Allah). Then when they get to Makka, they ask the people for help. Allah then revealed about them: {…and take provisions and the best of provisions is piety.}

8. The important thing is to trust in the guarantee of sustenance from Allah, to struggle and strive with the causes of that and to be in acceptance of the share appointed by Allah. One Imam Ahmad’s companions said: “Don’t become so concerned with the guaranteed that you come to accuse the Guarantor and becoming unaccepting of His apportionment.”

9. The fruit of tawakkul is the acceptance of Allah’s decree. Whoever leaves his affairs to Allah and then is accepting of what he is given has truly relied on Allah. Al-Hassan and others among the salaf defined tawakkul as ridhaa (acceptance).

Hadith No. 50 (Continued)

1. Allah ordered us to remember Him five times during every day and night by performing the prayer in its appointed time period.

2. He added to that many forms of remembrance, which are naafilah. This word means ‘extra’ or ‘additional’. Some of them are tied to the five prayers. It is preferable to prayer these prayers in the house over praying them in the Masjid. They can be ‘made up’ later if one is in the habit of doing them and misses one. The most important of them are (a) through e) are the most important):

a) Witr prayer which consists of an odd number of rakaat and is performed between Isha and Fajr preferably after sleeping and making an even number of rakaats (in pairs) of the night prayer or tahajjud.

b) Two rakaat before Fajr prayer – after the time comes in but before the Fajr prayer.

c) Two or four rakaat before the Dhuhr prayer. The Prophet (sas) did both. If doing four, it preferable to do two sets of two, but four all together is also permissible.

d) Two rakaat after Maghrib prayer.

e) Two rakaat after the Isha prayer.

f) Two rakaat between the adhan and the iqama (any of the 5 prayers).

g) Two rakaat to ‘greet’ the masjid – should always be made upon entering the Masjid before sitting down.

3. These sunnah prayers can make up for any shortcomings in the five obligatory prayers.

4. The longest gaps between obligatory prayers is from Isha to Fajr and from Fajr to Dhuhr. During the first period, the Prophet (sas) practiced and recommended the night prayer and the Witr prayer. During the second, he recommended the Dhuhaa prayer. Dhuhaa prayer is two or more rakaat, in pairs.

5. The strongest of all of these is the Witr prayer such that some of the scholars gave it a new ‘obligatory’ category between the ‘fardh’ prayers and the other voluntary prayers.

6. As for mentioning Allah other than with prayer: it is commended at all times and more strongly indicated at some times than others. It is especially recommended after the two prayers which have no attached sunnah prayer after them: after Fajr until the sun comes up and after Asr until the sun goes down. Allah mentioned this many places in the Qur’an:
{Exalt Him in the morning and in the afternoon} Al-Ahzaab: 42
{Mention the name of your Lord in the morning and in the afternoon.} Al-Insaan: 25
Also: Aal-Imraan: 41, Maryam: 11, Ar-Rum: 17, Ghaafir: 55
{Remember your Lord to yourself in humility and fear and in less than an open voice in the afternoon and the morning and do not be among the forgetful.} Al-A’raaf: 205

7. The best remembrance in these two periods is the fardh prayers of Fajr and Asr and they are the best of the five prayers. Both of them have been called the ‘middle prayer’ (two opinions) and they are the ‘two cool times’ referred to in the hadith that: whoever maintains them enters paradise.

8. Night time is the next best time for remembrance after these two.

9. Remembrance of Allah is not just prayer and verbal mention of Allah. It also includes:

a) Reciting the Qur’an

b) Teaching it and learning it

c) Teaching and learning other knowledge of Islam

10. It is desirable to go to sleep in a state of wudhu and to say subhaana Allah, Allahu akbar and al-hamdu lillahi 33 times each and complete 100 with the shahadah (just like after each prayer) before sleeping).

11. If you wake up during the night:
The Prophet (sas) said: “Whoever wakes up in the night, let him say:
Laa ilaha illa Allah wahdahu laa sharika lahu.
Lahu al-mulku wa lahu al-hamdu wa huwa ‘alaa kulli shai’in qadeer. Subhaana Allah wa al-hamdu lillahi waa laa illaha illa Allah wa Allahu akbar wa laa hawla wa laa quwwata illa billahi… rabbi ighfir liy.
The meaning is: “There is no deity but Allah alone and with no partner. His is the dominion and His is all praise and He is in power over all things. Exalted is Allah and praise to Allah and there is no deity but Allah and Allah is the Greatest and there is no power nor any movement except by Allah… and then say: O Allah forgive me – or make any other du’a which one wishes to make. After that if one makes wudhu and then prays, his prayer is accepted.”

12. Or, when one wakes in the night, they may say:
Al-hamdu lillahi allidhiy ahyaaniy ba’da maa amaataniy wa ilaihi an-nashur.
The meaning is: “All praise is to Allah who brought me to life after making me dead and unto Him is the resurrection.”

13. As for the rest of the ordinary things which one does during the day, the mentioning of Allah is prescribed for most of it. This includes eating and drinking, going to bed with one’s spouse, entering the house an leaving it, entering the bathroom and leaving it, mounting one’s animal (or car), killing an animal, etc.

14. Praising/thanking Allah (al-hamdu lillahi) is prescribed upon sneezing, seeing those in a bad condition in the affairs of this life or in their deen, when greeting one another and asking about each other’s condition and when receiving the bounties of Allah or getting relief from some test in this life. The best of that is to thank Allah in good times and bad whether times of plenty or scarcity and to thank Allah in ALL conditions.

15. It is prescribed to beseech Allah (du’a) upon entering the marketplace, hearing a rooster at night, hearing thunder, when it rains, during a strong wind, upon seeing the new moon and upon seeing the beginnings of ripe fruit.

16. It is also prescribed to mention Allah and to beseech Him when afflicted by hardships in this life, when leaving on a trip and when returning from a trip.

17. It is prescribed to seek refuge in Allah when one becomes angry, after having a bad dream and upon hearing the sounds of dogs and donkeys at night (because they can see roaming Jinn which we cannot).

18. And it is prescribed to ask Allah for a wise choice (istikhaara) when confronted with an important decision.

19. Tauba is prescribed after all forms of sin, major and minor. Allah said:
{And those who, when they have committed some sin or wronged themselves remember/mention Allah and ask forgiveness for their sins.} Aal-‘Imraan: 135.

20. Seeking to maintain all of the above is the way to become one of those whose “tongue remains moist from the remembrance of Allah.”