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Imaam Ibn Qudamah’s Treatise About the Speech of God and its Recitation

Al-Munaathirah feel-Qur’aan al-Kareem

 

wa

 

Kalaam Allaah al-Qadeem

 

The Disputing About the Recitation

 

and

 

The Speech of Allah, the Infinitely Pre-Existent

 

By the Religious Leader, the Knowledgeable

 

(Muwaffaq ad-Deen) The Reconciler of the Religion

‘Abuu Muhammad ‘Abd Allah bin Muhammad bin al-Qudaamah, from al-Maqdees (Palestine)

 

(541-620H)(1147-1223M)

 

Translated and Verified by: ‘Abuu Najm Muhammad bin Lithriq at-Ta’eenuu al-Mikseekee

(24th of Thul-Hijjah, 1428)

 

 

 

 

In the name of Allah, the Merciful, the Lenient

 

The Text of ‘The Disputing’:

 

A book of disputation from the Elder, the Leader, the Knowledgeable One, the Distinguished, the Worker, the Jurist, the Pious, Reconciler of the Religion, Elder of Islam, Aid to the Prophetic Tradition, the Legalist, the Fearful, Restrainer of Innovation, Noble of the Scholars, Fountainhead of the People of Truth: ‘Abuu Muhammad, ‘Abd Allah, ‘Ibn ‘Ahmad, bin Muhammad, ‘Ibn Qudaamah, al-Maqdeesee, may Allah be pleased with him, and be pleased with his dragging on some of the people of innovation about the Mighty Recitation and the Speech of Allah, the Eternally Pre-Existent.

 

The Elder, the Leader, the Knowledgeable One, the Laborer, the Jurist, Reconciler of the Religion, Elder of Islam, Legalist of Mankind, Noble of the Scholars, ‘Abuu Muhammad ‘Abd Allah bin ‘Ahmad bin Muhammad bin Qudaamah al-Maqdeesee said- may Allah have mercy on him- and be pleased with him:

 

The praise is for Allah, Master of the Worlds, and prayers of Allah and peace upon Muhammad, the Prophet, and on his people and all the rest.

 

As for what follows:

 

So surely it is frequently asked of some of our companions to relate about the dispute dragged between me and some of the people of innovation about the Recitation; so I feared from the increase and the loss (back and forth), so I thought to mention that in a way other than merely recounting (the dispute), so that there would not be an increase in the arguments and responses from their doubts and lies, with the intention that more (disputes) not occur, if Allah wills, and Allah is the Reconciler and He is sufficient for us and what an excellent Representative!

 

 

 

 

 

The Differences between the People of Tradition and Cohesion and the ‘Ashaarees and Their Likes About the Recitation

 

So we say: the point of difference is that we believe that the Recitation is the Speech of Allah, and it is these 114 chapters, the first of which is al-Faatihah, and its last is ‘The Two Chapters of Refuge’, and that it is composed of chapters, verses, letters, sentences, recited, heard, and written.

 

And from them is that: ‘these chapters and verses are not the Recitation, and indeed it is an equivalent of it, and a narration, and that it is created, and that the Recitation is a meaning in the Self of the Creator, so it is a single thing not divisible, not capable of being divided, not plural, and it is not a thing sent down, not recited, not heard, not written, and there is not found in the pages but paper and ink’.

 

And they differed in these chapters which is the Recitation, so some of them alleged that it is an equivalent from Jibreel, peace upon him, and that he is the one who composed it with the inspiration of Allah, Exalted is He.

 

And others of them allege that: Allah created it (the Recitation) in the Preserved Tablet, so Jibreel took it from there.

 

And they were in need (in their argument) of these chapters being created: in that ‘it was multiple, and nothing is diverse except the creation and these nullify the Attributes of Allah, Exalted is He’, then surely the Attributes (of Allah) are diverse and multiple, from it is the Hearing, the Vision, Knowledge, Volition, Ability, Life, and Speech, and there is no difference in that it (all Attributes) is Eternally Pre-Existent, and like that are the Names of Allah, Exalted is He, so surely it is diverse.

 

He, Exalted said: {And for Allah are the Good Names, so call him by it, and abandon those who disbelieve in His Names…} [Al-‘A’raaf:180].

 

And the Prophet, prayers of Allah and peace upon him, said: “Surely for Allah are 99 names, one hundred less one; whoever counts them will enter the Garden” [(1) Fair/Authentic according to at-Tirmithee].

 

So its (the Names of Allah) multiplicity is established in the Book, the Traditions and the Consensus, and it is Eternally Pre-Existent.

 

And indeed the text of ash-Shaafi’ee- may Allah have mercy on him- is upon that the Names of Allah, Exalted is He, are other than created, and ‘Ahmad, may Allah have mercy on him, said: “Whoever alleges that the Names of Allah, Exalted is He, are created so indeed he is a disbeliever” and like that the expressions (words/statements) of Allah are multiple; Allah, Exalted is He, said: {Say- if the sea were ink for the words of my Master, truly the sea would be exhausted before the words of my Master were used up, even if double the ink were brought to Us…} and it is Eternally Pre-Existent and like that are the Books of Allah, Exalted is He, so surely the Tawraah, ‘Injeel, Zabuur and the Recitation are all diverse and other than created.

 

So surely they said: ‘it is created’, so indeed they said ‘the Recitation is created’, and it is said by the Mu’tazilah and indeed we agree about their being misguided, and those affiliated with the Traditions agree that the one who utters that the Recitation is created is a disbeliever; from them are whoever said: ‘a disbeliever- carried out from the religion (due to his statement)’, and from them are those who said: ‘he does not leave the religion, until they speak of the creation of the Recitation and other than it from the Books of Allah, Exalted is He’, so indeed they said the one who utters it is a disbeliever, and surely they (the Predecessors) related about it being other than created and its being multiple, so indeed their (the heretics) saying is false.

 

And surely they (the heretics) said: ‘it is a single thing other than multiple’, so they stubbornly insist, and this obligates that the Tawraah, ‘Injeel, Zabuur and Recitation are all the same book, and that Muusaa when the Tawraah was sent down upon him, all the books of Allah were sent down upon him, and that our Prophet, upon him the prayers and peace, when the Recitation was sent down upon him, so surely he recited all the Book of Allah, Exalted is He, and whoever preserved anything from it, so indeed he preserved all of it, and this line of thinking obligates that there is not anyone who is rewarded in preserving the Recitation because he obtains the same reward for preserving all of the Book of Allah, Exalted is He, as he does for preserving one Verse of it.

 

And this line of thinking obligates that the Prophet, prayers of Allah and peace upon him, when one Verse of the Recitation was sent down upon him, indeed it was sent down upon him all together, and the Tawraah, ‘Injeel, and Zabuur all together, and this is shameful upon the one who utters it, and an unreasonable premise in itself.

 

And this line of thinking obligates that (in the Recitation and the Traditions) the command is a prohibition, and that which is established is denied, and account of Nuuh, is the account of Huud and Luut, and one of the first, it is last, and this is a saying of one who is not ashamed of anything, and it is similar to the saying of the Sophists.

 

And indeed it reached me from one of them, that it was said to him: ‘The chapter of al-Baqarah, is it the chapter of ‘Aali ‘Imraan?’ He said: ‘Yes’.

 

 

 

 

 

The Refutation Against Whoever Said the Recitation is an Expression and a Narration

 

So surely they (the Predecessors) said: Surely the Speech of Allah, Exalted is He, it is this Book (the Recitation), and that the Tawraah, ‘Injeel, Zabuur and the Recitation are the Speech of Allah, Exalted and Extolled is He, the Eternally Pre-Existent, rather they (the heretics) say: ‘nothing was sent down from it to the Prophets, and it is not a thing memorized, and it is not recited, and not heard, and indeed its expression was sent down,’ they deny the Recitation, the Tradition, and the consensus of the Muslim world.

 

So surely there is no difference between the Muslims, all of them, that the Recitation was sent down upon Muhammad, prayers of Allah and peace upon him, and that the Tawraah was sent down upon Muusaa, peace be upon him, the ‘Injeel upon ‘Eesaa, peace be upon him, and the Zabuur upon Daawud, peace be upon him.

 

And Allah, Extolled and Exalted is He, said: {Aalif, Lam, Raa’: These are Verses of the Clear Book * Surely We sent down it down as an Arabic Recitation, that perhaps you might be of those who are prudent} and He, Glorified is He, said: {A month of Ramadhaan in which the Recitation was sent down}, and He Exalted said: {And surely it is truly sent down from the Master of the Worlds * Sent down with him, the Trustworthy Soul * Upon your heart in order that you be one of the admonishers}, and He, Glorified is He, said: {And those who disbelieve said: If only the Recitation were sent down upon him in one sentence}, and He said: {And they said: ‘If only this Recitation were sent down upon a man from the two great towns}, and He, Glorified is He, said: {And We sent down from the Recitation as a healing and mercy for the Believers}, and He, Exalted is He, said: {And truly We gave to you seven from those that are repeated, and the Great Recitation}, and He, Exalted is He, said: {A Book, We sent it down to you, Blessed}, and He, Exalted is He, said: {And this Book, We sent it down, Blessed} and there are many similar to this.

 

And surely Allah, Exalted is He, declared the Yahuud disbelievers due to their saying: ‘Allah has not sent down upon a man anything’, then He said: {He said: Who sent down the Book is He who gave it to Muusaa, a light and a guidance for the people}, then He said: {Say: Allah, then abandon them in their delving into play}, and He, Extolled and Exalted, said: {And He is Who sent down to you the Detailed Book and those who We gave the Book knew that it was sent down from your Master in truth}, and He, Glorified is He, said: {He is Who sent down upon you the Book, from it are Verses Precise}, and equal to this are many more, and the Prophet, prayers of Allah and peace upon him, said: “The Recitation was sent down upon seven forms” [(2)Fair/Authentic Narration according to at-Tirmithee] and the six (books of Tradition) related from it.

 

 

 

 

The Distinction between the Book and the Recitation among the ‘Ashaarees

 

So they (the heretics) said: ‘Then the Book of Allah is other than the Recitation.

 

We say: ‘You differ with the Master of the Worlds, and you break from the consensus of the Muslims, and you come with what no one from the Muslims has come with, so surely there is no difference among the Muslims that the Book of Allah is the Great Recitation, the one sent down upon the chief of the Messengers, in a clear Arabic tongue.

 

And Allah, Exalted is He, surely reported that, so He, Glorified is He, said: {‘Aalif, Laam, Raa’: These are Verses of the Clear Book * Surely We sent it down as an Arabic   Recitation} and He said: { Haa’ Meem * By the Clear Book * Surely We made it an Arabic Recitation that perhaps you might be of those who are prudent}, and He, Glorified is He, said: {Haa’ Meem * A Revelation from the Merciful, the Lenient * A Detailed Book, its Verses an Arabic recitation for a people who reflect}, and He said: {And a time when We sent to you a party from the jinn in order for them to hear the Recitation, so when they attended it, they said: ‘Listen’; so when it ended, they were appointed to their people as admonishers * They said: ‘Oh our people, surely we heard a book sent down from after Muusaa’}. So they designated it as a Recitation and a Book.

 

And He said in another place: {So they said: ‘Surely we heard an amazing recitation * Guiding towards Righteousness, so we believed in it’} and no one hides this, except one whose heart has been blinded by Allah, and one who is led astray from His path, and whoever Allah misguides, so who is there for him as a guide?

 

And they need (in their arguments) also: that these letters not issue forth except from a location, and instruments (like lips, a mouth, or two other objects for air to pass through), so it is not correct to attribute that to Allah, Glorified is He.

 

And the answer about this is from various aspects:

 

First:

 

What evidence is there that the letters are not to be except from a place (for sound) to come out of and instruments!? So surely they say that ‘we are not able to pronounce it (sounds, letters) except from a place for it to come out (a mouth) and instruments (lips)’; so that is for the Master!? (that limitation as well)’.

 

We say that this reasoning for Allah, Exalted is He, is upon His creation, and is making simile for Him with His slaves, and attaching to their attributes, His Attributes, and this is from the most atrocious of disbelief and surely we agree that Allah, Exalted is He, is not similar to His creation, and that there is no equal for Him at all, and He is the Hearer, the Onlooker.

 

Second:

 

That this is falsehood in regards to the Attributes of Allah, Exalted is He, so surely knowledge can not be in our right except in turns, and the hearing can not be except clumsily, and vision can not be except whoever (does he is merely) staring (within his limited view), and Allah, Exalted is He, is One Who is Knowledgeable, a Hearer, an Onlooker, and He cannot be described with that, then surely you deny the Speech for need of it – in your allegation – about the place for (sound) to come out from and the instruments, so you are bound to deny the rest of the Attributes, and surely you established for Him the Attributes and you deny from Him the instruments, you are bound equally to that in the Speech and if not then what is the difference between the two?

 

Third:

 

That Allah, Exalted is He, made some of His creation speak with other than a place for (sound) to come out, so surely He, Exalted is He, said: {And We caused to speak their hands and they bore witness, their feet}, and He, Exalted is He, said: {Until when they came bearing witness against them, their ears, eyes, and skin, about what they used to do * And they say to their skin: ‘Why do you bear witness against us?’, they (their organs) say: ‘Allah has caused us to speak Who caused to speak all things (that speak)}(41:21), and He reported about the sky and the earth, that they both said: {We come willingly}.

 

And the Prophet, prayers of Allah and peace upon him, reported that a stone was giving  the Islamic greeting to him [(3) Fair/Strange].

 

And the pebble in his hand was making praise to Allah [(4) Famous] and ‘Ibn Mas’uud said: ‘We heard the food (of the Prophet) making praise of Allah, while (the Prophet) was eating’ [(5) Fair/Authentic].

 

And there is no differing in that Allah, Exalted is He, enabled the solid stone to speak with other than a place (for a sound) to come out of, so considering that is He, Glorified is He, not capable of Speech except from a place (for a sound) to come out of?!

 

And they need (in their argument) that the letters be entered in succession, so it precedes some of it others.

 

And the answer:

 

Surely this truly is binding in reality whoever debates about ‘a place (for a sound) to come out of and instruments (for a sound to issue), and Allah, Glorified is He, is not described with that, and upon that this goes back to simile of Allah, Exalted is He, with His slaves, so surely there is no imagining its reality except whatever one imagines from them (the Attributes), then it is false in itself.

 

So surely they said: ‘So you do not have any evidence that these sounds include the letters of the Recitation’. We say, ‘the Book of Allah, Exalted is He, and Traditions of His Prophet, upon him the prayers and peace, and the consensus of the Muslim world’.

 

As for the Book of Allah, Exalted is He: so His saying, Glorified is He {And We did not teach him poetry nor is it desirable for him, surely it is but a remembrance and a clear Recitation}.

 

So Allah, Exalted is He, reported that they designated the clear Recitation as poetry, and does anyone think that there are not letters in poetry? So indeed a proof is that they designated it as poetry, an evidence that it is letters.

 

And Allah, Exalted is He, said: {Say: Truly if Mankind and Jinn gathered together to bring an equal to this Recitation, they could not bring its equal, even if some of them aided the others}.

 

So He indicated (a challenge) up to the present day, and He challenged them with bringing two of its equal, and the challenge was not possible to (win) except with study (of the very thing they are challenged to produce!), and they did not know what it was, and He, Exalted, said: {Surely this Recitation was narrated upon the tribe of ‘Israa’eel} and He, Exalted is He, said: {Surely this Recitation is guiding to that which is straighter} and He, Exalted is He, said: {If We sent down this Recitation upon a mountain…}, and He, Exalted is He, said: {A Book We sent down to you, Blessed, for its Verses are arranged}, and He, Exalted is He, said: {And when you recite upon them  Our Declarative Verses, those who have no hope said: ‘We could assemble to bring a Recitation other than this or in place of it’; Say: It is not for me that I replace it from my  own desire, surely I follow but what is revealed to me}, and He, Glorified is He, said: {And when you recite upon them Our Verses, they say: ‘We already heard’, or ‘If we wanted, truly we could say the same as this…}, and He, Exalted is He, said: {And they say: ‘If only this recitation was sent down upon a man from the two great towns…}.

 

So Allah, Exalted is He, reported about them that they sought to bring two (Verses) other than or instead of it (the Recitation), and one time they claimed the ability to do such saying (that they can achieve) its equal, and once they said: ‘If only it had been sent down upon other than him’, knowing certainly that this which is found among us (the Recitation) is sounds, verses, letters and sentences.

 

And Allah, Exalted is He, said: {And indeed We empty out for the people in this Recitation from all lessons, so a majority of the people refused but were disbelievers}, and He said: {And indeed truly We made clear this Recitation in order that they remember}, and He said: {And indeed We made clear this Recitation to the people from all lessons and Mankind was in a great many things crooked} and He, Exalted is He, said: {And indeed We made clear to the people this Recitation from all lessons so that perhaps they would remember * Our Recitation is other than possessing crookedness that perhaps they might be certain}.

 

And this is a sign to the present day, that the lessons are dismissed, indeed it is this Arabic Recitation which the people know as a Recitation, and Allah, Exalted is He, designated it as Arabic, and this indeed is the versification described, which is letters, recording what is not known and not perceived (by the creation).

 

And He, Extolled and Exalted is He, said: {A Detailed Book, its Verses an Arabic Recitation}, and He, Glorified is He, said: {And surely it truly is a revelation of the Master of the Worlds * Sent down with it is the Trustworthy Soul * Upon your heart in order that you be from the admonishers with a clear Arabic tongue}, and He, Exalted is He, said: {And like that We sent down an Arabic Recitation, and We made clear in it about the threat}, and He said: {Surely We sent down an Arabic Recitation that perhaps you would be prudent}, and He said: {And this is a confirmed Book of an Arabic tongue}.

 

And these Verses and its appearance in the Book of Allah, Exalted is He, are many, proving in its totality that the Recitation is this which is precise chapters, detailed Verses, letters, and sentences, and surely its possibility is dealt with somewhat, then its sum total is not dealt with.

 

 And the Prophet, prayers of Allah and peace upon him, said: “Surely this Recitation is a teaching of Allah, so teach from His teaching what you are able, surely this Recitation, it is the rope of Allah, Exalted is He, it is the clear light, and the useful cure, a guard for whoever clings by it, and a salvation for whoever follows it, no crookedness, so it is upright, and no perversity, so it makes one content, and there is no end to its wonders, and there is no wearing out the greatness of the returns, so recite it, then surely Allah will reward you for its recitation with every letter, ten good deeds, whereas surely I do not say {‘Aalif, Laam, Meem} is a letter, rather in the ‘Aalif, are ten, and in the Laam are ten, and in the Meem are ten good deeds each” [(6) Fair/Authentic/Strange].

 

And it is transmitted from ‘Ibn Mas’uud also, suspended in the chain to him, and the Prophetic Tradition is replete with that.

 

And the Muslim world is gathered upon that this is the Recitation, which the prayer is not correct without it, and the Friday speech is not correct without a Verse from it, and there is no reading it for those menstruating or sexually impure.

 

And when the People of Truth and the Mu’tazilah differed, so the People of Truth said: ‘The Recitation is the Speech of Allah, other than created’, and the Mu’tazilah said: ‘It is created’, and there would not be an argument, except (they claim) there exists what is (a Recitation) in the Self of the Creator, whereas no one has ever perceived what it is, and we do not know of it, and considering that Allah, Exalted is He, commanded with delivering the Recitation in His saying, Glorified is He, :{ And recite the Recitation slowly}, the Muslims would never understand (how to recite it) except this is found.

 

And when al-Waleed bin al-Mugheerah said: ‘Surely this is but a saying of a man’, indeed it indicates this versification, so Allah, Extolled and Exalted is He, threatened him, so He said: {He will be placed in the fires of Hell}, and when they said: ‘We could never believe in this Recitation, and not in that which is between his hands’, indeed they indicated it (that the Recitation and Book are the same).

 

And when they said: ‘Surely this is but myths of the ancients’, they did not mean other than it (the Recitation and the Book).

 

And if this versification is not a Recitation, then truly it became obligated that the prayer is made vain with it (speech other than Allah’s Speech), because the Prophet, prayers of Allah and peace upon him, said: “Surely anything from the speech of the people is not good in our prayer, indeed it is making glorification and magnification of Allah, and a recital of the Recitation” [(7) Authentic].

 

So upon the saying of these traitors: ‘The Recitation does not make virtuous the prayer except in it (the issue) is a revocation for it (the prayer), because it is not actually a Recitation (of Allah), and rather it is an equivalent (to the Speech of Allah) of Jibreel’; and these scandalous people are unprecedented in it (saying this).

 

And the Muslims agreed that in the Recitation are abrogated and abrogating Verses, and indeed they relate this to versification, aside from what is in the Self (of Allah).

 

And they agreed that the Recitation is miraculous, the creation failed from bringing two verses equal to it, or a chapter equal to it, and indeed they related that to this Recitation (that is between our hands), and it is this Recitation which the Muslims agreed upon, and the disbelievers disbelieved in it and the Mu’tazilah alleged that it is created. 

 

 

 

 

 

The School of ‘Abeel-Hasan al-‘Ash’aree about the Recitation

 

And al-‘Ash’aree affirmed their (the Mu’tazilah) error, then he recanted and said: ‘It is created and not the actual Recitation’ so he surpassed them (the Mu’tazilah) and there is no differing between the Muslims, rather there is consensus that whoever disputes a Verse, an agreed upon sentence, or an agreed upon letter, that he is a disbeliever.

 

And ‘Alee, may Allah be pleased with him, said: ‘Whoever disbelieves in a letter from it, so surely he disbelieved in all of it’ [(8) Famous, Authentic in meaning].

 

 And al-‘Ash’aree disputes all of it, and he says: ‘there is nothing about it (that is) a Recitation (from Allah directly), and indeed it is the speech of Jibreel’; and there is no difference between the Muslims, all of them, that they say: ‘Allah said such’, when they wanted to report about a Verse or they bore witness in a sentence from the Recitation, and they affirm, all of them, that this is the saying of Allah.

 

And near al-‘Ash’aree there is not this saying, and indeed (to him) it (the Recitation) is a statement of Jibreel, so it became necessary for them [that they say] ‘Jibreel said’, or ‘the Prophet said’, prayers of Allah and peace upon him, when they related a Verse.

 

Then surely they indeed affirmed that the Recitation is the Speech of Allah, other than created; then it is not the Recitation of this Arabic Book ( in between our hands), which Allah called a Recitation- then what is the Recitation among them?

 

And which thing do they recognize other than this (Book between our hands), that they designate as a Recitation, so surely the name of the Recitation indeed is studied from the law or text, and as to the intellect, so it is not required to name a Recitation as an Attribute of Allah.

 

And there does not come a text being named the Recitation except this Book, and the Muslim world does not know a Recitation other than it, and their naming other than it as a Recitation, so it is a judgment with other than legal evidence and there is no (valid) understanding that differs with the Book, the Traditions, and the consensus of the Muslim world.

  

 

 

The Compilation that Unmasked the ‘Ash’arees, and Proved their Agreement with the Mu’tazilah and their Statement About the Created-ness of the Recitation

 

And the pivot of the people is upon the statement of the created-ness of the Recitation, and agreement with the Mu’tazilah, rather they preferred to not to be known (associated) with them, so they committed unreasonable, powerless contention, and disputed reality, and contravened the consensus, and discarded behind their backs, the Book and the Traditions, and stated something, that no Muslim stated before them, not even a disbeliever, and from the wondrous things is that they do not dare to openly state what they say, and they make no statement about it except in the disavowal from it, even though they are guardians of the matter and are the masters of the state.

 

And when their opinions are related [which] they believe, they hate that, and reject it, contending stubbornly about it, so they do not demonstrate but veneration of the Recitation and esteem for the Book, and that stance is just for looks, and in the disavowal from it (their actions) is their saying: ‘What is in it but pages and ink, and whatever (else) in it’, and this is an act of atheism.

 

 

 

 

A Declaration of the Author and His Opponent about the Previous Statements

 

And indeed it is related from who drew the disputation between me and him, some of what he said, so we said to him that, so he became angry and difficult about it, and he is from the greatest of guardians of the city, and how eloquent he became to me in his opinion until he asked me to agree with him, and he said: ‘I want to say to you ‘I narrate’ what is in myself, and you say to me ‘I narrate’ what is in your self’, and he stated to me their opinions the same as what we related about it from them, and when he was bound to some of the Verses and being familiar with the Recitation being these chapters (in between our hands), he said: ‘Then we say surely this is a Recitation, rather it is not the Eternally Pre-Existent Recitation’; I said: ‘And for us there are two Recitations?!’.

 

He said: ‘Yes’, and regardless there was then for us two recitations (according to his argument), so he became angry for what I related about it, this statement (of his), and he said it to some of our companions, [so we said]: ‘you are the guardians of the matter, and masters of the state, so what is prohibiting you from surfacing with your opinion to the general public, and calling the people to saying it between them’, so he was astonished, and did not respond to me.

 

  

 

 

The Agreement of the ‘Ash’arees with the Atheists in Hiding their Opinions and the Reality of their School

 

And we do not know of a party among the people of innovation hiding their opinions, and not daring to allow it to surface, except the Atheists and the Ash’arees.

 

And surely the command of Allah, Exalted is He, and His Messenger, prayers of Allah and peace upon him, is to demonstrate the religion, and call to it, and announce what has been sent down to him, so He, Exalted is He, said: {Oh you Messenger, preach what has been sent down to you from your Master, and if you do not, you have not delivered His Message, and Allah will preserve you from the people} [5:67].

 

And if their opinion was just like they alleged- (that) it is the truth; so why do they not demonstrate it, call the people to it; and how is it permissible for them to conceal it, camouflage it, and pretend to differ with it, and to them, the general belief (of the Muslim world) is not equal to it, rather if their opinion was the truth which the Messenger of Allah, prayers of Allah and peace upon him, his Companions, and what the Scholars of those after them were upon, how could it not be demonstrated by anyone of them? And how could they smooth over its concealment? Or how is it possible that the Prophet, prayers of Allah and peace upon him, concealed it from his followers and still preached what was sent down to him, and he was threatened about hiding anything about it in His saying: {…and if you do not, then you have not delivered His Message}.

 

Or how can he (the Prophet) be capable of leading the creation to believe different than the truth!?

 

Then he, prayers of Allah and peace upon him, feared for his followers that Allah teach them the truth, and (Allah) commanded him with preaching it to his followers, so (the heretics are implying) he concealed it from them until they were misguided from it.

 

Then when he hid it, so to which of the Companions did he let know until they believed him and they spoke with it?

 

And how was it imagined among them that they record it and keep it low upon its concealment until it was not related from anyone of them, even with the great number of them, and their dispersal in the cities!?

 

So if they (the heretics) imagined that about them (the Companions), so to which of the Followers was it (the true belief) related until they believed it?

 

So all of this is from the impossible, which cuts all essence of intellect with its invalidity, and it is known certainly what the Messenger of Allah, prayers of Allah and peace upon him, and his Companions, and their Followers, believed in regarding the Recitation- the same as the belief of the Muslims- that it is this Arabic Recitation which is chapters and Verses, and this matter is not hidden from anyone other than the one Allah misguides, and surely they imagine in their minds that the truth is hidden from the Messenger of Allah, prayers of Allah and peace upon him, and from his Companions, and the Followers after them, and from the Scholars- those who arranged the religion; and they (the Followers) derived (this belief) from their predecessors, and (belief) will be derived from them by whoever comes next, and (the heretics are saying) it was concealed from them the correct (belief), and it was never declared to them (the inheritors of the Tradition) the authentic view and then comes al-‘Ash’aree, so he made it clear, and explained what was hidden by the Prophet, prayers of Allah and peace upon him, from the Muslim world, and he uncovered it; so upon these old-fashioned minds and weak thinkers since they imagined that the truth was lost by the Prophet, prayers of Allah and peace upon him, and al-‘Ash’aree found it and all of the Muslim world was heedless of him, and he (al-‘Ash’aree) clarified for them their religion (typo with waw instead of yaa’?); and surely it became permissible for them (the heretics) this (allegation); it became permissible to tread upon disbelief in their association of this error to our Prophet (again typo with mixing up the baa’ and the nuun), upon him the prayers and peace, and his followers, to the extent that they (the Prophet and the Muslim world) were lost from the correct view, and were misguided from the truth (in their allegation).

 

And it (the previous argument) deems necessary that their laws be other than the laws of Muhammad, prayers of Allah and peace upon him, and their religion was other than the religion of Islam because the religion of Islam is that which Muhammad, prayers of Allah and peace upon him, came with, and (on the contrary) this indeed is what al-‘Ash’aree came with and surely they (his followers) were pleased with this and acknowledged it, leaving Islam entirely.

 

 

  

 

 

The Evidence that the Recitation is Letters

 

So surely they (the heretics) say: ‘So how do you say that the Recitation is letters and it is not mentioned in a book, or the Traditions, or from any one of the Scholars?’

 

We say: surely it is proven that the Recitation is these Chapters and Verses, and there is no difference between the wise, all of them- their Muslims and their disbelievers – in that it is letters, and there is no differing of the two wise (disbelievers and believers) in that ‘al-Hamd’ is composed of five letters and the Muslims agree, all of them, upon that the Chapter of al-Faatihah is seven verses, and they differed about whether ‘In the Name of Allah, the Merciful, the Gracious’, is a Verse from it or not; and they agreed in that it is sentences and letters, and surely Allah, Exalted is He, commenced a majority from the chapters of the Recitation with the Abbreviated Letters like { ‘Aalif, Laam, Meem}, or { ‘Aalif, Laam, Raa’} and the wise did not dispute whether they were letters, except (those) upon a path of unreasonable contentions, and this is a matter other than concealed from anyone, so there is no proof towards the evidence against it.

 

So surely they (the heretics) said: ‘it is not permissible for you to say wordings never mentioned in a book or in Traditions’, and surely its meaning is authentically proven.

 

We say: This is wrong, for surely there is no difference in that as was responded to by who said: Surely the Recitation is 114 chapters, and the chapter of al-Baqarah is 286 verses, and counting the number of verses of the chapters of the Recitation, its being divided up into sevens and tens, then this wording was never mentioned in a book or Traditions (but are common conventions in the Muslim world, that no one rejects).

 

 

 

 

The Evidence of the Letters from the Prophetic Traditions and Sayings of the Companions

 

The evidence of the wording ‘letters’ indeed came in the Prophetic Traditions and sayings of the Companions, and the consensus of the Muslim world, is that he, prayers of Allah and peace upon him, said: “Whoever recites the Recitation and expresses it, so for him in every letter from it is ten good deeds, and whoever recites it and makes grammatical errors in it, so for him in every letter from it is a good deed” [(9) see endnotes].

 

And this is an authentic narration.

 

And the Prophet, prayers of Allah and peace upon him, said: “They tried to recite the Recitation before I came, a people establishing its letters by raising lots (divination), and their collarbones did not allow it (there throats would not allow them to speak the results of the divination)” [(10) see endnotes].

 

And he, upon him the prayers and peace, said: “The Recitation was sent down upon seven dialects” [(11) Authentic].

 

And ‘Abuu Bakr and ‘Umar – may Allah be pleased with them both –  (said) expressing the Recitation is more preferred to us than memorizing some of its letters [(12) Authentic], and ‘Alee, may Allah be pleased with him, said: ‘Whoever disbelieves in a letter from the Recitation, so indeed he disbelieved in all of it’ [see notes for #8] and he said also: ‘Whoever teaches al-Baqarah, so surely in every letter from it is a good deed, and the deed with ten equal to it’ [(13) Authentic].

 

And ‘Abd Allah bin Mas’uud – may Allah be pleased with him – said: ‘Whoever swears by the Recitation, so upon him are each letter as an expiation’ [(14) Authentic].

 

And ‘Ibn ‘Umar said: ‘When one of you goes out to his pilgrimage, then returns to his people, so he brings the Book, then commences, so he recites a Chapter, then surely Allah will write for him in every letter, ten good deeds, whereas I surely do not say {‘Aalif, Laam, Meem}, rather ‘Aalif is ten, Laam is ten, and Meem is ten [(15) Authentic].

 

And al-Hasan al-Basree said: ‘Reciting the Recitation are three, so a people, they preserve its letters and they let waste its definitions’ [(16) Weak].

 

And Huthayfah and Fidhaalah bin ‘Ubayd said: ‘Help yourself in the Book, and do not lapse upon the ‘Aalif nor the Waw’ [(17)].

 

And ‘Abuu ‘Ubayd and other than him mentioned from the Scholars about their compilations of chapters in which they differed in letters of the Recitation, and the People of the Lands, from the Arab Peninsula, ‘Iraaq, and Shaam are all upon counting the letters of the Recitation, so they counted it, every people of the land, and they said: ‘Its count is such and such’. And al-Musayyib bin Waadhih said: ‘I said to Yuusuf bin ‘Asbaat, ‘Abuu ‘Umar as-San’aanee narrated to me, Hafs bin Maysarah said: ‘The Recitation is one-thousand, one-thousand letters, and one-thousand and twenty four letters, so whoever recites the Recitation is offered in every letter a wife from the Huur al-‘Ayn [(18) Weak], so Yuusuf bin ‘Asbaat said to me, ‘How wondrous that is to you, from that Muhammad bin ‘Abbaan al-‘Ijlee narrated to me, from ‘Abd al-‘A’laa, from ‘Ibraaheem at-Taymee, from his father, from ‘Abd Allah bin Mas’uud, he said: ‘Whoever recites the Recitation is offered with every letter, two wives from the Huur al-‘Ayn [(19) Strange].

 

And these reports never disappeared and these wordings are circulating reports between the people who do not reject it as abominable, and no one differed in it until al-‘Ash’aree came, then he rejected it, and differed with the creation, all of them, their Muslims, their disbelievers, and there was no effect of his saying upon the People of Truth, and they did not abandon the realities; and there is no one who makes statements (about) the Messenger of Allah, prayers of Allah and peace upon him, or (against) the consensus of the Muslim world, like the statement of al-‘Ash’aree except Allah dispossesses him of Success, and causes him to be blind, and misguides him from the right path.

 

 

 

 

 

Evidences in the Book and the Prophetic Traditions that the Speech of the Master, Extolled and Exalted is He, is with Sound

 

And they said also: ‘Indeed your saying, ‘surely Allah Speaks with sound’, never came in a book or tradition’.

 

We say, yes, indeed the Book, the Tradition, and consensus of the People of Truth mention it, as for the Book:

 

So in the saying of Allah, Exalted is He: {And Allah spoke to Muusaa, speaking} and His saying, Exalted is He: {From them, whoever Allah spoke to…}, and His saying, Glorified is He: {And it was not for a man, that Allah Speak to him, except as revelation or from behind veils}, and His saying, Exalted is He: { And when your Master Called Muusaa…}, and there is no difference between us, that Muusaa heard the Speech of Allah from Allah, with other than agency, and he did not hear but the sound, so surely the sound is what came to his hearing.

 

And indeed it is true from the Prophet, prayers of Allah and peace upon him, that he said: “Surely Allah will gather the creation, so He will call them with a sound, hearing it whoever after, just as he heard it from nearby, that ‘the Sovereign is I, the Vanquisher…” [(20) Authentic] and ‘Abd Allah bin ‘Ahmad mentioned, he said: ‘I asked my father, so I said: ‘Oh father, surely the Jahmees allege that Allah does not Speak with sound’, so he said: ‘They lie, indeed they revolve upon the broken-down’ [(21) Authentic].

 

Then he said: ‘Abd ar-Rahman bin Muhammad al-Muhaaribee narrated to us, he said: Sulaymaan bin Mihraan al-‘Amash narrated to us, from ‘Abeel-Dhuhaa, from Masruuq, from ‘Abd Allah bin Mas’uud – may Allah be pleased with him – that he said: ‘When Allah Speaks with the revelation – the People of the Sky hear His Voice’ [(22) Authentic].

 

‘Abuu Nasr as-Sajzee – may Allah have mercy on him- said: ‘And this report is not transmitted except by an approved religious leader’ and indeed it is transmitted raised (marfuu’) to the Prophet, prayers of Allah and peace upon him, and in some of the reports is that Muusaa, upon him be peace, when His Master called him, : ‘Oh Muusaa’, he answered quickly – in response to the sound- so he said: ‘At your service, I hear your Sound and I do not see your Place, so where are You?’ He said: “I am above you, and in front of you, and behind you, and from your right, and from your left”; so know that this Attribute does not emerge except for Allah, Extolled and Exalted is He- he said: ‘So that is you Oh Master, is it then Your Speech I hear or the Speech of your Messengers?’ He said: “Indeed, it is My Speech” [(23) Authentic].

 

And in another report is that Muusaa, upon him be peace, when His Master met with him, when he heard the speech of the sons of ‘Aadam, he could not hear them because he became deaf in his ears from the Speech of Allah, Exalted is He [(24) Very Weak].

 

And its equal in a great number of reports taken by the Muslim world, and they did not reject it except innovators not capable of damaging it.

 

 

 

 

 

About the Likenesses of Those That are Perished

 

So surely they said: ‘Then sound is not to be (produced) except by air between two objects’.

 

We say: this is from the delirium of who disputed with us about the same (issue) in the Letters, and we say if this is an analogy from them for our Master, Blessed and Exalted is He, upon His creation, and a simile for Him by His slaves, and a ruling upon Him in that there is not to be His Attributes except like the attributes of His creation, and this is far misguidance.

 

 

 

 

 

The School of the Predecessors About the Attributes

 

Then surely their allegation is equal to this in the remainder of the Attributes upon what we mentioned before in that we believe in the Attributes of Allah, Extolled and Exalted is He, indeed it is the following:

 

So we described Allah, Exalted is He, with what He described Himself with, and with what His Messenger described Him with- we do not exceed, overstep, interpret, or explain it.

 

And how excellent what He said, and His Messenger, prayers of Allah and peace upon him, it is true, and truthful, we do not doubt it, and we do not seek to change it.

 

And we know that when Allah and His Messenger, prayers of Allah and peace upon him, said a meaning, he was knowledgeable in it, so we believe in the meaning which he intended and we trust his knowledge of it, and we say just as our righteous Predecessors said and our Scholars who followed their example, we believe in Allah, and what came from Allah, upon the intended meaning of Allah, and we believe in the Messenger of Allah, prayers of Allah and peace upon him, and what came from the Messenger of Allah, prayers of Allah and peace upon him, upon the intended meaning of the Messenger of Allah, prayers of Allah and peace upon him.

 

We say what Allah and His Messenger, prayers of Allah and peace upon him, said, and we remain silent about what is behind that, and follow, and we do not innovate in that which Allah, Exalted is He, bequeathed to us in His Book, what the Messenger of Allah, prayers of Allah and peace upon him, bequeathed to us in his Tradition, and what our Predecessors bequeathed to us- may Allah be pleased with them.

  

 

 

 

The Legal Evidences For This School

 

So Allah, Exalted is He, said: {And that this, My path is straight, so follow it and do not follow the contravening paths, so they will separate you from His path}, and He, Exalted is He, said: {And follow the best, what is sent down to you from your Master}, and He said to His Messenger, prayers of Allah and peace upon him {Say: If you love Allah then follow me, He will love you} and the Prophet, prayers of Allah and peace upon him, said: “Upon you is my Tradition and the tradition of the righteous, rightly-guided Successors after me, and bite upon it with the molars, and beware, and the invented matters, so surely all inventions are an innovation, and every innovation is a misguidance” [(25) Authentic].

 

And ‘Abd Allah bin Mas’uud said: ‘Follow, and do not invent, so surely it will suffice you’ [(26) Authentic].

 

And ‘Umar bin ‘Abd al-‘Azeez – may Allah be pleased with him – said a speech, its meaning:

 

Stop where the people stop, so surely they who are from knowledge stopped, and in vision they reached sufficiency, and for them they were upon its uncovering more powerful, and in merit they were more suited, and surely for them is the precedence, so indeed if you were upon the guidance, truly they preceded you in it, and indeed if you say (something), (it is) a narration after them, so there is not to be inventions in it but by whoever followed other than their path, and he desired in his self (to be) from them, and truly they described about it what is sufficient, and they spoke about it with what was quenching, so how short are their records, and there is not above them a limit, truly they limited their recordings of people, then they dried up, and others aspire after them, so they study thoroughly, and surely they who are from that truly are upon a straight guidance [(27) Authentic].

 

And al-‘Awzaa’ee – Allah’s mercy upon him – said: ‘Upon you are reports from predecessors, surely the people will refuse you; and beware the opinions of men, surely they embellish the sayings for you ‘ [(28) Authentic].

 

 

 

 

The Affliction of Statements About the Created-ness of the Recitation

 

And the righteous Predecessors from the Companions – may Allah be pleased with them – and the religious leaders after them never ceased honoring this Recitation and they believe that it is the Speech of Allah, and they sought nearness to Allah by His Recitation, and they said, surely it is other than created, and whoever said that it was created, then he is a disbeliever.

 

So when the afflictions occurred and the Mu’tazilah appeared and they called to saying the Recitation is created, the People of Truth were firm, up to some of them being fought, imprisoned, and beaten; so from whoever was weak, then he replied to questioning fearful, and fearful for himself, and whoever was strong in his belief, and sacrificed himself for Allah, and he was content that his argument was on the side of Allah, and he did not cease from holding to the Prophetic Tradition, until that Allah, Exalted is He, exposed this affliction, and this ordeal vanished and He restrained the people of innovation.

 

And the People of Tradition agree that the Recitation is the Speech of Allah, other than created, and the Recitation could never be what they say- that it was created; the same (agreement) for these Chapters which Allah designated as an Arabic Recitation, and sent it down upon His Messenger, upon him be peace, and there never occurred differences in that, absolutely not.

  

 

 

 

The True School of the ‘Ash’arees About the Recitation

 

And among the ‘Ash’arees is that it (the Recitation and Book) is created, so their saying is the same as that of the Mu’tazilah without a doubt, except that it is purposefully masked, so they make statements on the surface in order to agree with the People of Truth, then they explain it with a statement of the Mu’tazilah.

 

So from that is said ‘there is the Recitation of one who reads it, recites it, memorizes it, writes it, or hears it’, then it is said ‘there is the Recitation in the Self of the Creator, existing with Him; it is not sounds, nor verses, nor letters, nor sentences’. So how does one imagine which one it is when it is recited, heard, or written?

 

And they say: ‘Surely the written Recitation in the pages of the Book, then there is nothing present in it but ink and paper’; so if it was just as they allege, then the ruling would not exist for only the pure to touch it, and we do not think that the one who is ritually impure is prohibited from touching ink and paper, and there would be no expiation upon the one who swears by the pages in the Book when he breaks his oath.

 

And whoever said: ‘Surely it is not in the pages of the Book but ink and paper’; he necessitates the equation between the pages of the Book and the records of ‘Ibn al-Hajjaaj (Saheeh Muslim), since there is not between every single page but ink and paper, so surely they are equal; and he obligates then the equation of the two in rulings- this is with their rejection of Allah, Exalted is He, and His Messenger, prayers of Allah and peace upon him, and their breaking away from the consensus of the Muslim world; so surely Allah, Exalted is He, said: {Then do not swear by the places of the stars * In a Book Guarded * Not touching it except the pure * A revelation from the Master of the Worlds}.

 

And Allah, Exalted and Glorious, swore that it is ‘a Noble Recitation in a guarded Book’, so they rejected it and they said: ‘What is in the book but ink and paper?’

 

And Allah, Exalted is He, said {Rather it is a Glorious Recitation * On a Tablet Preserved} and He, Glorified is He, said: {By the mount * By a Book Composed * In a Parchment Unrolled}. And he, prayers of Allah and peace upon him, said: “Do not travel with the Recitation to enemy land or a place where it is feared that the hands of the enemy might get it” [(29) Authentic].

 

Intended are the pages of the Book which are in the Recitation; and all of the Muslims agreed upon honoring the pages of the Book, glorifying it, and prohibiting the ritually impure from touching it. And whoever swears by it then breaks his oath, so upon him is an expiation, and there would be no obligation of expiation in the violation of an oath made in the name of something created.

 

And some of the innovators mention that ‘an expiation is indeed obligated upon the violation of an oath for the belief of the public is that in it is the Speech of Allah.’

 

And this is just plain negligence about it; so if the ruling from the Prophet, prayers of Allah and peace upon him, is not defined currently, then surely he (the heretic) confessed that generally the people of the later times of the Prophet, prayers of Allah and peace upon him, and his Companions, they believed that in it (the Recitation and pages of the Book) is the Speech of Allah, Exalted is He, and their acknowledgement of it to the Prophet, prayers of Allah and peace upon him, and their correctness in it, then it is the truth  in which there is not doubt, and it is not permissible to disagree about it.

 

And surely he said: ‘If they (the people of the later times of the Prophet) believed that, and the Prophet, prayers of Allah and peace upon him, did not teach them, then how is  knowledge of it [arrived at from] the conditions of the Companions of the Messenger of Allah, prayers of Allah and peace upon him, and their beliefs [were not] hidden from the Messenger of Allah, prayers of Allah and peace upon him, while he was present among them, and rather they took (their beliefs) from him, to him they referred (all matters), with him they cut off speaking (about matters from their own opinions), and they placed priority upon him.

 

Then were they correct in their beliefs or in error?

 

So if they were in error, then truly in beliefs, the Companions of the Messenger of Allah, prayers of Allah and peace upon him, were misguided, and whoever came after them, and if he is right about their transgression, then how is it possible that the Companions of the Messenger of Allah, prayers of Allah and peace upon him, agree upon the incorrect belief, misguidance, and falsehood, and they were mistaken about the truth, and those who followed them upon that until this ignoramus (al-‘Ash’aree) came with his allegation, so he knew the correct way, and he knew the error of who was before him?!

 

Then this is a confession in that his opinion is a heresy and an incident that transgresses against the Companions of the Messenger of Allah, prayers of Allah and peace upon him, and the Followers after them, and it is merely by means of what he said it about them, and his invention about them (that he achieves heresy).

 

And surely he alleged that the people of the later times of the Prophet, prayers of Allah and peace upon him, did not believe this, and indeed there are narrations from them- so this ruling was never established in their time, and they never obligated an expiation upon the violator of an oath by the paper and ink?

 

And there is no disagreement between the Muslims that expiation in the violation of an oath is not obligated for breaches of oaths made by paper, ink, or creation.

 

Then until he (al-‘Ash’aree) narrated this belief, where was it wrapped up?

 

And we did not know of the narration (of his) except from their filthy statement contradictory to the Muslim world, the Book, and the Traditions.

 

 

 

 

The Deception of the ‘Ash’arees of the Public in Their Belief That There is Not in the Pages of the Book, the Recitation in Reality and They are Those who Truly Follow the Predecessors in their Belief and Their Hearts are Marked Differently Than What They Demonstrate, and the Ruling of the Compiled Statements From Them is Atheism

 

Then how is it permissible for them to deceive the public who are not strong in their beliefs, which furthermore, they allege is heresy (what the public believe), from their  (the heretics) honoring the pages of the Book in the surface, and its esteem among the people, and perhaps they (the heretics) rise near its arrival and they face it, and they place it upon their heads in order to deceive the people that they believe in the Recitation, and perhaps they (the heretics) command whoever is obligated by right in the judgment of the one who violates the oath as a deception, since it is a violation of an oath sworn by the Glorious Recitation.

 

And this among them is a false belief, so how is it permissible for them to demonstrate it, and rather they conceal their differences, and this is true hypocrisy in the guidance of the Messenger of Allah, prayers of Allah and peace upon him, and it is the Atheism of today, and it is that: appearing to agree with the Muslims in their beliefs, and concealing a difference in that.

 

Then this is permissible for these people absolutely, so they are Atheists without a doubt, then surely there is no doubt in that they demonstrate reverence for the pages of the Book as a deception that in it is the Recitation, and they believe in secret, that it is nothing but paper and ink, while demonstrating esteem for the Recitation, gathering for its recitation in the assemblies and gatherings, and they believe that it is from the authorship of Jibreel and his expression of it, and they demonstrate that Muusaa heard the Speech of Allah from Allah, then they say: ‘it was not with sound’.

 

  

 

 

 

Their Beliefs in Allah, His Messenger, Prayers of Allah and Peace Upon Him, and His Book

 

And it is said in their call to prayer and their prayers: ‘I bear witness that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah’ and they believe that he came up short in his message, his Prophethood, and in his death, and that he did not remain the Messenger of Allah, and indeed he is still the Messenger of Allah, prayers of Allah and peace upon him, in his (al-‘Ash’aree’s) lifetime.

 

 

 

 

A Declaration of the Status of ‘Abeel-Hasan al-‘Ash’aree

 

And from the wonders is that their religious leaders who established this heresy, is a man who is not knowledgeable in the religion, is not pious, and (knows) nothing about the sciences of law at all, and knowledge is not attributed to him except knowledge of censured debate.

 

And he (al-‘Ash’aree) confessed that by his sticking to retirement (Mu’tazilism) for forty years, then he appeared to withdraw from it, then there does not appear from him after the repentance except this heresy.

 

So how do they imagine in their minds that Allah does not find it suitable for anyone but His enemies to know the truth, and that He would not demonstrate guidance, except with someone to whom knowledge of Islam is not attributed, then there is no chance for the religion (if that is true).

 

 

 

 

 

A Declaration That His Heresy is From the Most Filthy Heresies and Most Evil

 

Then surely this heresy is emerging with its evil and increasing its victory, indeed it has become publicly spread far and wide, and appeared emerging significantly, and it is suspected to be the last heresy, and it is the most filthy, and the hour will be established upon it, and it will not disappear except it will multiply and disperse, so surely our Prophet, prayers of Allah and peace upon him, reported to us that in the last days, there will be a great amount of heresy, and the Prophetic Tradition will die, and the religion will be strange, and that the earth will not cease to exist but turning away (in disgust), and that the goodness will become rejected, and the abominable things widespread, and that the People of Truth will say that clinging to their saying, their detractors not harming them until the command of Allah comes and that He will greatly reward them, multiplying their reward.

 

And the Prophet, prayers of Allah and peace upon him, likened the religion in the last days with the how it began in the first days, as strange and with very few adherents, so he, peace upon him, said: “The religion began strange, and it will return to being strange just as it began”. Then it gathered between them (the Companions) that for them is “forgiveness”, so he said: “So forgiveness for the strangers” [(30) Fair].

 

Then the merit of those of the later times is in some of the reports; so he said in a narration: “There will come upon the people a time, and there will be for those who stand by the Book and the Prophetic Tradition, equal to the reward of fifty martyrs”, they (the Companions) said: ‘Oh Messenger of Allah, (the equivalent of fifty martyrs) from us or from them?’ He said: “From you” [(31) Authentic].

 

And this is a great merit and that, and Allah knows best, truly (reflects) the great amount of their usefulness, and the difficulty of the matter upon them, and the great amount of hatred for them, and the few amount of helpers for them, and indeed it came in a report: “There will come upon the people a time, and clinging to his religion will be like grasping upon hot embers” [(32) Authentic].

 

So this difficulty is necessary for that, the reward of Allah establishing us upon Islam and the Prophetic Tradition, and our lives, world, and gathering upon them two.

 

 

 

 

How the ‘Ash’arees and the People of Heresy Conclude that They Are Upon the Truth

 

And from the wonders is [that] the people of heresy are concluded upon their being the People of Truth with their great number of adherents, great amount of wealth, their prominence, and their emergence.

 

And they are concluded upon invalidating the Prophetic Tradition with the small amount of its people, their estrangement, and their weakness.

 

 

 

 

A Chapter of the Importance of Refuting What They Call To

 

So they made what the Prophet, prayers of Allah and peace upon him, did not perform, an evidence of the Truth, and a symbol of the Tradition, as an evidence upon falsehood, so surely the Prophet, prayers of Allah and peace upon him, reported to us about the small number of People of Truth in the end times, and their strangeness, and the appearance of the people of heresy and their great number, and rather they follow the path of the nations (who disbelieved) in their conclusion upon their Prophets, and the Companions of their Prophets, in their (the disbelievers) great amount of wealth, and their guardians, and the weakness of the People of Truth, so as the people of Nuuh said to him: {We do not see but men, like us, and we do not see anyone following you but those who we cast off, the first ones to think in such a way, and we do not see you as above us in merit, rather we see you as liars} (Huud: 25), and the people of Saalih said, in what Allah reported to us about them in His saying: {The highest born of those who were arrogant from his people said to those who were weak, to whoever believed from them: ‘Do you indeed know that Saalih is sent from his Master?’, they said: ‘Surely we are, in what he has been sent with, believers’ * Those who were arrogant said: ‘Surely we are, in which you believe, disbelievers’}(7:75); and Allah, Extolled and Exalted is He, said: {And like that We try some of them with others for they say: ‘Are these who Allah is upon (their side) from between us?’}(6:53), and, {And those who disbelieved said to those who believed: ‘If it is better, then you did not precede us to it’}(46:11) and they were made to forget a saying of Allah, Extolled and Exalted is He: {They were gladdened in the life of the earth and what is the life of the earth in the Afterlife but personal effects}, and His saying, Glorified is He: {Make yourselves patient with those who call their Master in the early morning and evening seeking His Face, and do not withdraw your eyes from them seeking the beauty of the life of the earth, and do not obey who We have eliminated from his heart Our Remembrance, and followed his desire, and he was in his matter excessive}(Al-Kahf:28), and His saying, Glorified is He: {And strike for them an example, two men, we made for one of them two, two gardens from grapes…}(Al-Kahf:32), and His saying, Glorified is He: {And do not strain your eyes at what we have made them to enjoy in it of companions, from them…}(20:131), and He, Exalted is He, said: {And were it not that the people would be one nation, truly we would make for whoever disbelieved in the Merciful, for their homes a ceiling from silver…}(Az-Zukhruf:33) to His saying, Exalted is He: {And surely all of that in consideration are wares of the life of the earth, and the Afterlife near your Master is for those who fear}(Az-Zukhruf:35).

 

And surely it was Caesar, king of the Romans, and he was the most guided disbeliever from them; so surely at the time it reached him a writing about the Prophet, prayers of Allah and peace upon him, he asked about him to ‘Abuu Sufyaan, so he said: ‘Do the weak or the strong of the people follow him?’ So he said: ‘Rather the weak of them’. So it was for him an evidence that he was the Messenger of Allah, prayers of Allah and peace upon him, so he said: ‘Surely they (the weak) follow the Messenger in every age and time’.

 

And in the reports: that Muusaa, upon him be peace, when he spoke to his Master, Exalted is He, He said to him: “Oh Muusaa, you two do not be stifled at the adornments of Pharaoh, he will not take it with him (when he dies), so surely I, if I wanted that you two see [adornments] that his power will fail from being made small, of which we gave to you two for you to do, and rather I considered in you two about that and I withdrew it from you two and like that I did with my ‘Awleeyaa’, and in ancient times, what fell to them that I drove them away from it (power in the earth), due to the fact that the world would harm them, just as the compassionate shepherd drives away, his camel from kneeling down in the mange, and surely I, due to fearing (for them) its comforts and its pleasures, kept them away from it, just as the compassionate shepherd keeps away his sheep from the grazing in a place of destruction (i.e., poisonous plants or dangerous cliffs), and not in order for them (the ‘Awleeyaa’) to throw disgrace upon me (for withholding these benefits of the earth), rather in order that they complete their fate from the Afterlife intact, saved, not relying on the earth, and not obeying the whims [(33) Famous].

 

And indeed it was transmitted from ‘Umar – may Allah be pleased with him:

 

“Surely a drink entered upon the Prophet, prayers of Allah and peace upon him, so he raised his head in the house, and I did not see in it but three pieces of equipment (furniture or personal effects), and the Prophet, prayers of Allah and peace upon him, was leaning upon a straw mat sprinkled with sand, with nothing between him and the mat, so the traces of the mat were imprinted on his side, so I said: ‘Oh Messenger of Allah, and you are upon this condition, and the Persians and the Romans, and they are not worshipping Allah, for them is the entire earth!?’ So the Prophet, prayers of Allah and peace upon him, sat up, his face reddened, then he said: “Are you in doubt, Oh son of al-Khattaab, or are you not content that for them will be the earth, and for us the Afterlife?” [(34) Authentic].

 

This is a meaning of the report.

 

Allah established us and to take care upon Islam and the Tradition, and we ward off disbelief and heresy, and He made us love Belief and it flows in our hearts, and He hated for us disbelief, evils, and disobedience, and He made us from those who are conscious (of right and wrong).

 

 

 

 

 

The Verses of at-Tiraazee About the Unmasking of the ‘Ash’arees

 

And indeed ‘Abuul-Hasan ‘Alee bin ‘Abee Bakr at-Tiraazee poeticized about them-

 

He said:

 

They call me (those) from a narration of the tribe of the sly

And from a people in their lowliness is speech

Separate parts of the Staff from all sides

When they remember, and not for them a religious leader

Like a march, or one-eyed, or a march to the slaughter

Their slogan of the foolish and the quarreling

When they ask about the All-Mighty, they lean in

Towards breaking-down and they disclose the meanness

And when they ask about the Recitation they say

It is said in His creation is a human vinegrower

The Speech of Allah is not for him, letters

And not in His saying is ‘Aalif and Laam

As if Allah is for all of them an idol

And he said to them, My Speech is not fine

And if it is said of the Prophethood, how did you become

For they said: This flew in it, the pigeon

When the Prophet grabbed, so how did you remain

His Prophethood, so your blood-money and the peace

So this is their religion, then know certainly

And not upon their hybrid is blame

For them a man and a new Tawheed

Disdaining Islam, that, and mankind

And being short in the People of Truth, an injustice

And nicknaming and revilement, a lasting rain

And a statement of the atheist, and surely they howl

The howling of a wolf not for him a pack

So patience, tribe of the eloquent, patience

So surely the injustice is not for him eternal

And surely the truth shines and does not combine (its rays)

And a statement of the cross-eyed, his last love.

 

Its End

 

And the praise is for Allah, Master of the Worlds, prayers of Allah upon our Chief, Muhammad, and his people, and may the salutation be conveyed.

 

 ______________________________________________________

Footnotes 

 

 

(1) It came out from al-Bukhaaree, Muslim, at-Tirmithee, and ‘Ibn Hibbaan.

 

(2) And at-Tirmithee said in his ‘Sunan’ (10/198): “2867: ‘Abuu ‘Eesaa said- this narration is Fair/Authentic”.

 

(3) And as-Suyuutee said in ‘Jaami’ al-Hadeeth’: 9400 – ‘Truly I know of a rock in Makkah that was giving salutations to me before I was sent (Prophethood)’, and in the wording of at-Tabaraanee, ‘Truly I knew it (the rock) when I was raised, and I know it now’ (at-Tayaalisee, ‘Ahmad, Muslim, at-Tirmithee – Fair/Strange – ad-Daarimee, and ‘Ibn Hibbaan from Jaabir bin Samarah).

 

(4) And in Fath al-Baaree: ‘I say: And indeed it was made very famous, the pebble was praising…’ And al-Haakim transmitted it in al-Mustadrak, and al-Haakim said: ‘This narration is authentic in the chain’. And al-Bayhaqee transmitted it in Shu’ab al-‘Eemaan. And ‘Abd ar-Razzaaq transmitted it in his ‘Musannaf’, and it came out in ad-Daarimee. And al-Bayhaqee transmitted it in ‘as-Sunan as-Sughraa’. ‘Ibn Katheer transmitted it in his ‘Tafseer’: ‘This is a strange narration from this route…, and rather for it is a witnessing narration from another route’.

 

(5) In ‘Sunan at-Tirmithee’: 3566- Muhammad bin Bashaar narrated to us, ‘Abuu ‘Ahmad az-Zubayree narrated to us, ‘Israa’eel narrated to us, from Mansuur, from ‘Ibraaheem, from ‘Alqamah, from ‘Abd Allah, he said…At-Tirmithee said: ‘This narration is Fair/Authentic’.

 

(6) The wording until ‘…upon a majority the refutation’ and it is the wording of al-Hijree, so he is weak, but the wording of the narration after that, then it is authentic for other than it. And in ‘Mishkaat al-Masaabeeh’, al-Mubaarakfuuree said about the last part of the narration (it is transmitted cut-off at the level of the Companion, from a pathway of ‘Ataa’ bin as-Saa’ib, from ‘Abeel-‘Ahwas, from ‘Abd Allah bin Mas’uud, he said: ‘Teach this Recitation, for surely you are rewarded in its recital for every letter ten good deeds, surely I do not say to you that is for ‘Aalif, Laam, Meem, but for ‘Aalif and Laam and Meem, in each letter is ten good deeds’), and at-Tirmithee said: ‘This narration is Fair Authentic strange in its chain”.

 

(7) ‘Ibn Khuzaymah reported to us, and ‘Abuu Khaleefah both said, Muhammad bin Bashaar narrated to us, he said: Yahyaa al-Qattaan narrated to us, he said: al-Hajjaaj as-Sawaaf narrated to us, from Yahyaa bin ‘Abee Katheer, from Hilaal bin ‘Abee Maymuunah, from ‘Ataa bin Yassaar, from Mu’aaweeyah bin al-Hakim as-Salamee…And ‘Ibn Balbaan said in ‘Saheeh ‘Ibn Hibbaan’ (6/25)(2248): “Its chain is Authentic upon the conditions of Muslim”. They differed in the word “Qiraa’ah” and “Tilaawah” only.

 

(8) It came out of ‘Abd ar-Razzaaq (8/472, number 15946). And at-Tabaree transmitted it in the introduction to his ‘Tafseer’ 1/54, from ‘Ibn ‘Aleeyah from Shu’ayb. And indeed ‘Abd Allah bin al-Mubaarak said its equal (Majmuu’ al-Fataaawaa: 4/182). And indeed ‘Ibn ‘Uthaymeen said its equal in (Majmuu’ Fataawaa 5/23) from ‘Alee, may Allah have mercy on him. And indeed ‘Ibn Hajar said its equal in ‘al-Mutaalib al-‘Aaleeyah’: the chapter of Belief and Warning (5/339) from ‘Abd Allah bin Mas’uud.

 

(9) It came out in ‘al-Mihrar feel-Fiqh’ (1/73) from Muhammad bin Muflih, and in ‘Luma’ah al-‘Itiqaad’ (1/17). ‘The grammatical error which does not change the meaning makes healthy the prayer…’ The Prophet, prayers of Allah and peace upon him, informed us, that for every prayer is ten good deeds, then for every prayer, in it is the grammatical error that does not invalidate the prayer, so in it is some good, at least one good deed.

 

(10) And as-Suyuutee said in ‘Jaami’ al-‘Ahaadeeth’ (11789): (‘Ahmad, ‘Abd bin Hameed, ‘Abuu Daawud, ‘Ibn Hibbaan, at-Tabaraanee, al-Bayhaqee in Shu’ab al-‘Eemaan, and adh-Dheeyaa’ from Sahl bin Sa’d) all men in this narration are Trustworthy except Muusaa bin ‘Ubaydah and his brother ‘Abd Allah. And in ‘Tahtheeb at-Tahtheeb (10/318) about Muusaa bin ‘Ubaydah: “And al-‘Aajiree said from ‘Abee Daawud, his narrations are upright except from ‘Abd Allah bin Deenaar. ‘Ahmad said, from ‘Ibn Ma’een, Muusaa bin ‘Ubaydah is not counted as among the liars, rather he transmitted from ‘Abd Allah ‘Ibn Deenaar rejected narrations. And ‘Ibn Khaythamah said, from ‘Ibn Ma’een, indeed his narrations are weak because he transmitted from ‘Abd Allah bin Deenaar rejects. As-Saajee said, rejected in narration, and he was a righteous man, al-Qattaan did not narrated from him however Wakee’ narrated from him (and Sufyaan ath-Thawree), and he said he was Trustworthy, and indeed he narrated from ‘Abd Allah bin Deenaar narrations and was not followed in it.” And in this narration there is not found ‘Abd Allah bin Deenaar.

 

(11) Saheeh al-Bukhaaree.

 

(12) As-Suyuutee said in ‘Jaami’ al-‘Ahaadeeth’ (27/437): 30427- from Muhammad bin ‘Abd ar-Rahman bin Yazeed, he said: ‘Abuu Bakr and ‘Umar said, truly expressing some of the Qur’aan is more preferred to us than memorizing some of its letters (‘Ibn al-‘Anbaaree in ‘al-‘Eedhaah’). Al-Bahuutee in ‘Kashshaaf al-Qanaa’ (3/415), and ‘Ibn Taymeeyah in ‘Majmuu’ al-Fataawaa (3/402), and ‘Ibn ‘Uthaymeen in ‘Majmuu’ Fataawaa (5/23), and ‘Ibn ‘Asaakir in ‘Taareekh Damashq (51/374). And as-Suyuutee said in ‘Jaami’ al-‘Ahaadeeth’ (24/358): 27310- from al-Layth bin Sa’d, from ‘Abeel-‘Azhar: that ‘Abuu Bakr as-Sadeeq said ‘truly that expressing a Verse from the Qur’aan is more preferred to me than to memorize a Verse (‘Abuu ‘Ubayd in ‘Fadhaa’il al-Qur’aan’, ‘Ibn ‘Abeed-Dunyaa in ‘Kitaab al-‘Israaf’, and ‘Ibn al-‘Anbaaree in ‘al-‘Eedhaah’).

 

(13) This saying is Authentic in meaning, since its recital grants ten good deeds, then so does its teaching.

 

(14) Al-Musannaf by ‘Ibn ‘Abee Shaybah (3/476): (3) ‘Ibn Fudhayl and Wakee’ from Sufyaan, from ‘Abee Sinaan, from ‘Abd Allah bin ‘Abeel-Huthayl, from ‘Abd Allah, he said: ‘Whoever swears by a Chapter from the Qur’aan, Allah counts it as an oath for each Verse’.

 

(15) And as-Suyuutee said in ‘Jaami’ al-‘Ahaadeeth (36/260): 39231- from ‘Ibn ‘Umar, he said: When a man went out, then returned to his people, so for he brought the pages of the Book, then he began to read from it, so surely Allah will write for him in every letter, ten good deeds, as for that I do not say {‘Aalif, Laam, Meem}, rather the ‘Aalif is ten, the Laam, is ten, and the Meem is ten (‘Ibn ‘Abee Daawud and in it is Thawayr also). And in ‘Tahtheeb at-Tahtheeb (2/32): “And al-Haakim said in ‘al-Mustadrak’, they did not harbor malice against him except he became a Shee’ah…” and this report is authentic for its meaning because of other reports.

 

(16)And as-Suyuutee said in ‘Jaami al-‘Ahaadeeth’ (15/142): a narration of al-Hasan: it came out from al-Bayhaqee in Shu’ab al-‘Eemaan (2/531, number 2621). And in it are Abandoned men.

 

(17)It came out of ‘Ibn ‘Asaakir in ‘Taareekh Damashq’ (48/302).

 

(18) & (19) And as-Suyuutee said in ‘Jaami’ al-‘Ahaadeeth’ (15/223): at-Tabaraanee in al-‘Awsat, ‘Ibn Mardaweeh, ‘Abuu Nasr as-Sajzee in ‘al-‘Ibaanah’. And in this report “Muhammad bin ‘Ubayd bin ‘Aadam bin ‘Abee ‘Eeyaas al-‘Asqalaanee”, so he is weak. See al-‘Albaanee in ‘as-Salsalah adh-Dha’eefah wal-Mawdhuu’ah’ (9/70). The chain for (19) is strong but the text is unknown.

 

(20) It came out from ‘Khalq ‘Af’aal al-‘Ibaad’, Saheeh al-Bukhaaree, al-‘Adab al-Mufrad, ‘Abuu Ya’laa, at-Tabaraanee, and Musnad ‘Ahmad.

 

(21) ‘Kitaab as-Sunnah’ by ‘Abd Allah bin ‘Ahmad, #533 (page 64).

 

(22) With ‘Ibn Qudaamah this narration is Raised to the level of the Prophet, prayers of Allah and peace upon him, but the Ministry of Islamic Affairs said in the commentary of the book ‘Luma’ah al-‘Itiqaad, that it is ‘Cut-off’ at the level of Companion.

 

(23) It came out from ‘Ibn ‘Asaakir in ‘Taareekh Damashq’ (61/50), and from al-‘Aluusee in ‘Ruuh al-Ma’aanee’ (12/116), and ‘Ibn al-Jawzee in ‘al-Muntathim (1/78), and ‘Ibn an-Najjaar in ‘Sharh al-Kawkab al-Muneer’ (1/333), and this is a statement of Wahb bin Munnabih.

 

(24) Naasir ad-Deen al-‘Albaanee said in ‘Salsalat al-‘Ahaadeeth adh-Dha’eefat wal-Mawdhuu’ah’ (11/369): ‘Very Weak’. And in the report is the word ‘Waqa’ instead of ‘Waqr’.

 

(25) Al-‘Albaanee said in ‘Salsalat as-Saheehah’ 6/526: ‘And this is an Authentic chain, it men are all Trustworthy…’

 

(26) Muhammad Naasr ad-Deen al-‘Albaanee said: Consult its derivation with some of the other reports in my treatise: ‘ar-Radd ‘alaal-Ta’qeeb al-Hatheeth’.

 

(27) Al-‘Albaanee explained in ‘Saheeh wa Dha’eef Sunan ‘Abee Daawud’ (4612): Authentic, cut-off, easy to derive the benefit from it.

 

(28) With an addition: “…So surely the affair has become clear, and you are upon a straight path”. And Naasr ad-Deen al-‘Albaanee said in ‘Mukhtasar al-‘Uluuw’: ‘Authentic’.

 

(29) Naasr ad-Deen al-‘Albaanee said in ”Irwaa’ al-Ghaleel’ (5/138): ‘Muslim transmitted it’. Page 312. Authentic. It came out from Muslim (6/30), and like that, ‘Ibn Maajah (2880) from a pathway of al-Layth, from Naafi’, from ‘Abd Allah bin ‘Umar, with it’.

 

(30) And al-Mubaarakfuuree said in ‘Tuhfat al-‘Ahwathee’ (7/383): at-Tirmithee said: ‘This narration is Fair’.

 

(31) As-Suyuutee said in ‘Jaami’ al-‘Ahaadeeth’ (9/339): 8560: It came out from at-Tabaraanee (10/182, number 10394). And it came out also from: al-Bazzaar (5/178, number 1776). Al-Haythamah said (7/282): al-Bazzaar transmitted it, and at-Tabaraanee, and the men of al-Bazzaar are Authentic men, other than Sahl bin ‘Aamar al-Bajlee, and ‘Ibn Hibbaan confirmed him as Trustworthy.

 

(32) Al-‘Albaanee said in ‘Salsalat as-Saheehah’ 2/682: at-Tirmithee transmitted it (2/42) and ‘Ibn Battah in ‘al-‘Ibaanah’ (1/173) from ‘Umar bin Shaakir, from ‘Anas, Raised up. (31)And at-Tirmithee said: ‘A Strange narration from this route, and ‘Umar bin Shaakir is a Basrian elder and indeed more than one of the People of Knowledge transmitted from him’. I say: ‘And he is Weak just as in ‘at-Taqreeb’. Rather the narration is Authentic, due to that surely there is for it a great many witnessing reports.’

 

(33) A statement of Wahb bin Munabbih in ‘Tafseer ‘Ibn Katheer’ (5/281), and in ‘Kitaab az-Zuhd’ from the chapter of ‘The Desires’ from the Leader ‘Ahmad, and in ‘Taareekh Damashq’ from ‘Ibn ‘Asaakir (61/59 & 79), and in ‘al-Muntathim’ from ‘Ibn al-Jawzee (1/79), and in ‘Uyuun al-‘Akhbaar’ from ‘Ibn Qutaybah ad-Daynuuree (1/235), and the chains alternate between Authentic and Weak. And ‘Ibn Taymeeyah said in his ‘Majmuu”, this narration is ‘Famous’ (27/130).

 

(34) As-Suyuutee said in ‘Jaami’ al-‘Ahaadeeth’ (27/325): (al-Bukhaaree, Muslim, at-Tirmithee,

and Nasaa’ee) and he said (at-Tirmithee): ‘Fair/Authentic’.

 

 

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